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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS are cross fertile with and morphologically similar to domesticated chickpea and possibly represent wild forms of the crop species. This would suggest that chickpea was domesticated in present-day Turkey or in the northern parts of Iraq or the Syrian Arab Republic. 273 The primary genepool for chickpea consists of varieties, landraces, C. reticulatum, and C. chinospermum. One of the species in the secondary genepool is C. bijugum and it is considered a priority for collection. 274 Vicia is a large genus of 140 to 190 species, chiefly located in Europe, Asia, and North America, extending to temperate South America and tropical East Africa. Primary diversity for the genus is centered in the Near East and Middle East, with a large percentage of the species occurring in the Irano-Tauranian floristic region. Approximately 34 of the species have been utilized by humans. V. faba (faba bean) is cultivated primarily for its edible seeds, while a number of other species (V. sativa, V. ervilia, V. articulata, V. narbonensis, V. villosa, V. benghalensis, and V. pannonica.) are cultivated as a forage or grain legume for livestock, or for soil improvement. 275 The wild progenitor and the exact origin of faba bean are unknown. In practice, a continuous variation in V. faba for most morphological and chemical traits has been observed, making discrete differentiation of varieties challenging. 276 The grasspea genus Lathyrus comprises approximately 160 species, primarily native to temperate regions of the world, with approximately 52 species originating in Europe, 30 in North America, 78 in Asia, 24 in tropical East Africa, and 24 in temperate South America. Five Lathyrus species are grown as a pulse - i.e. that are harvested as a dry seed for human consumption: L. sativus, L. cicera, L. ochrus and, to a lesser extent, L. clymenum. Another species that is occasionally grown for human consumption, but for its edible tubers rather than its seed, is L. tuberosus, known as the tuberous pea or earthnut pea. 277 Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), originated in India and is a major grain legume crop of the tropics and subtropics grown in about 87 countries lying between 30°N and 30°S latitudes accounting for 4.89 million harvested hectares in 2008. 278 It has wide adaptability to diverse climates and is mainly grown for its multiple uses. India is the largest producer (75 percent of total production in 2008). 279 Pigeonpea is the only cultivated species in the genus Cajanus and the other 31 species are wild. Cajanus cajanifolius is considered the progenitor of the cultivated pigeonpea species. In situ conservation status While perennial Cicer species should be collected before they are extirpated, their regeneration is problematic. Ideally conservation strategies for in situ conservation should be developed for these taxa. 280 As reported in the GCDT’s Vicia faba conservation strategy the creation of in situ conservation measures have been recommended for members of Vicia subgenus Vicia in the Eastern Mediterranean region, specifically, Lebanon, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Israel, the Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey and the Caucasian Republics, with targeted sites encompassing the distinct ecogeographic preferences of individual taxa. The species within the subgenus most seriously threatened by extinction were shown to be restricted to Israel, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic and Turkey; the highest concentration of potentially threatened taxa are located in the Syrian Arab Republic. 281 Ex situ conservation status The lentil collection at ICARDA is the single international collection and it is also the largest lentil germplasm collection holding 19 percent of the total world collections (58 405 accessions). 282 There are 43 other national collections conserving more than 100 accessions each. 283 The bulk of the accessions of most of these collections are landraces which were collected in more than 70 countries. 284 Similarly, the faba bean collection at ICARDA is the single international collection and it is also the largest faba bean germplasm collection holding 21 percent of the total world collections (43 695 accessions). 285 There are 53 other national collections, each maintaining more than 100 accessions. 286 The bulk of the accessions of most of these collections are landraces originating from more than 80 countries. 287 331

APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea collections (ICRISAT and ICARDA) hold about 33 percent of the total world collections (98 313 accessions). There are 48 other national collections with more than 100 accessions each. The bulk of the accessions of most of these collections are landraces from more than 75 countries. 288 Although the holdings of the wild species of Cicer are small compared to the cultivated species C. arietinum, 289 they are potentially very important for research and crop improvement The grasspea collection at ICARDA is the single international collection and the second largest grasspea germplasm collection holding 12 percent of the total world collections (26 066 accessions) which are comprised of few large collections and several small but key collections, having a high proportion of indigenous accessions. 290 The collection maintained in France is the largest. There are about 62 other national collections whose number of accessions is greater than 50; landraces and wild materials comprise the bulk of the accessions which originate from about 90 countries. 291 The majority of chickpea, grasspea, faba bean, and lentil collections reported that they have long-term storage conditions available, however, there is no guarantee that uniform criteria were used or understood to define ‘long-term’ by each reporting collection. Similarly the assessments of needs for regeneration are not necessarily reported by each collection using standard protocols and seed viability measures. It is probable that for many collections, long-term storage security, regeneration, and multiplication represent major constraints for security of accessions, especially for 292, 293, 294, 295 perennial, wild, and out-crossing accessions. Genetic erosion and vulnerability Country reports documented a wide variety of concerns and measures of loss or reduction in genotypes of many pulse crops: • there is genetic erosion for Hedysarum humile, chickpea, pea, lupin, and lentil; for wild, endemic taxa attention is not paid to diverse biotypes; 296 • the indigenous diversity of bambara groundnut is under threat in the absence of an early warning system to assess genetic erosion; 297 332 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA • comprehensive studies on cowpea were conducted to quantify the level of genetic erosion. As judged by the number of landraces found in cultivation today compared with that found 10 years ago, serious genetic erosion has occurred; 298 • food legumes are at risk because of drought, increased use of new commercial varieties, and some crop-specific pests and pathogens; 299 • in Zimbabwe, recurrent droughts, most notably the 2002 cropping season, and flooding induced by cyclones have resulted in substantial loss of in situ plant diversity. Disaster recovery programmes led by the Government, have, in most cases, focused on providing chiefly hybrid seed of cowpea, beans, and groundnuts, and fertilizers. There are no records of attempts to restore the landraces and other plant genetic diversity of the affected areas, which suggests that lost material was not recovered; 300 • In Nepal, there is gradual disappearance of landraces of cowpea and of native cultivated species such as Vigna angularis and Lathyrus sativus; 301 • various local races/cultivars of chickpea, lentil, mung, and mash were observed to be lost in recent years from farmer’s fields; 302 • there is genetic erosion in mungbean, yardlong bean, and cowpea. 303 Gaps and priorities For lentil, landraces from Morocco and China and wild species, particularly from southwest Turkey, are not well represented in collections. There are gaps in chickpea collections from Central Asia and Ethiopia and there are relatively few accessions of wild relatives, particularly from the secondary genepool. For faba bean various geographic gaps have been identified including local varieties and landraces from North Africa, the Egyptian oases, South America and China. The small-seeded subspecies, V. faba subsp. paucijuga, is also underrepresented in collections and there are trait gaps, especially for heat tolerance. Geographic gaps for grasspea include the Russian Black Sea coast and Volga- Kama region, the Kurdish area of Iraq, Northeast and Eastern India, high altitude areas of Ethiopia, Northeast and Central Afghanistan, and the Andalucia and Murcia

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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