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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS regions of Spain. An important consideration for many legume collections is the need to collect and maintain samples of rhizobia. This is especially the case for wild legume species, but such rhizobia collections are rare 304, 305, 306, 307 (see also Chapter 3). There are regeneration needs for chickpea, grasspea, lentil, and wild species of pigeonpea. 308 Landraces of lentil in Morocco and in China are potentially undersampled and hence underrepresented in germplasm collections. 309 Landraces of chickpea from the Hindu-Khush Himalayan region, west and northern China, Ethiopia, Uzbekistan, Armenia, and Georgia are under-represented in collections. The world collection covers very little of the wild distribution for the Cicer genus, thus the accessions in ex situ collections represent only a fraction of the potential diversity available in wild populations. 310 Species related to chickpea and lentil are greatly undersampled geographically in collections. Species related to grasspea are poorly known and both grasspea and pigeonpea CWR are not well collected. 311 Research into regeneration and conservation protocols for wild chickpea and lentil species is a high 312, 313 priority. Safety duplication It is apparent that many important lentil, faba bean, chickpea, grasspea collections are inadequately duplicated and are thus at risk. Safety duplication requires a formal arrangement. The fact that an accession is present in another collection does not immediately signify that the accession is safety duplicated in long-term conservation conditions. At a minimum all unique materials should be duplicated for safety reasons, preferably in a second country. Depositions of safety backup samples with the SGSV is underway, especially by the global collections (e.g., those at ICARDA and ICRISAT). 314, 315, 316, 317 For example, ICRISAT has already deposited 5 000 of its 13 289 pigeonpea accessions with the SGSV. 318 Documentation, characterization and evaluation Some chickpea and lentil databases are not yet internet accessible, a global registry for each and documentation training are needed. Only a minority of grasspea databases are internet accessible, but there is a Lathyrus global information system managed by Bioversity and ICARDA which is available. 319 Many chickpea and lentil accessions are not yet characterized or evaluated and little of the data that 320, 321 are available is electronically accessible. Information currently held on Vicia faba accessions in collections is often fragmented and not easily accessible outside the institution. Genebank information systems generally need strengthening. Technical advice for information systems is needed. 322 Utilization Chickpea CWR have been sources of resistance used in breeding programs. Lentil CWR have been used in breeding programs to broaden the genetic base and provide genes for tolerance and resistance. Pigeonpea CWR are sources of resistance and protein. 323 Lentil, faba bean, and chickpea genetic resources are underutilized due to deficiencies in accession level data; suboptimal availability and accessibility of that data; lack of pre-breeding, core-collection creation, and other ‘value-adding’ work in genebanks; and few collaborative relationships with user communities. 324, 325, 326 However, a core collection (10 percent of the entire ICRISAT collection) and a minicore collection (10 percent of the core collection) for chickpea 327 and a core collection and a mini-core collection for pigeonpea 328 have been established. Almost all national collections of faba beans appear to be distributing almost entirely to domestic users. 329 Higher and more stable yields are key breeding objectives for chickpea. Some of the wild relatives have been utilized in breeding programs and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses have been incorporated into the crop from Cicer reticulatum and C. echinospermum, chickpea’s closest relatives. 330 Constraints in chickpea and lentil germplasm utilization are deficient data (and data access) about accessions, lack of pre-breeding, and collaborative relationships. Similarly, lack of accession information is a constraint for grasspea germplasm. For pigeonpea germplasm, constraints include inadequate accession data, difficulty in use of CWR, genetic contamination 333

APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence of pest and disease resistance traits, and poor interaction between breeders and collections’ curators. 331 There are relatively few efforts throughout the world to genetically improve grasspea. There are some important programs that aim to improve its yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and, most importantly, to reduce the percentage, or ideally eliminate, the neurotoxin from the seed. However, local landraces and cultivars are being lost as farmers switch to alternative crops, potentially limiting the progress that can be made through genetic enhancement. 332 Role of crop in sustainable and organic production systems Chickpea is grown and consumed in large quantities from South East Asia across the Indian sub-continent, and throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean countries, playing an important cultural as well as nutritional role. Over 95 percent of production and consumption of chickpea takes place in developing countries. The crop meets up to 80 percent of its nitrogen requirement from symbiotic nitrogen fixation and can fix up to 140 kg nitrogen per hectare per season from the air. 333 Lentil plants provide a number of functions aside from being sources of human food. Lentil straw is an important fodder for small ruminants in the Middle East and North Africa, and through nitrogen sequestration, the plant improves soil fertility and therefore increases sustainability of agricultural production systems. 334 Pigeonpea has wide adaptability to diverse climates and soils. About 92 percent of pigeonpea cultivation is in developing countries. Due to its multiple uses as food, fodder, fuelwood, hedges, windbreaks, soil binder and soil enricher. It is also used as green manure and for roof thatching and rearing lac insects in Malawi, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia in Africa. As it is also used in many cropping systems, it therefore plays an important role in sustainable production systems. 335 Because of the extreme tolerance of grasspea to difficult environmental conditions, including both drought and water-logging, it often survives when other crops are decimated. However, in years when conditions are particularly harsh, human consumption 334 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA of this survival food may increase, due to the lack of any suitable alternative, especially among the poorest rural people, to a level at which there is a severe risk of the consumer succumbing to a neurological disorder, lathyrism, caused by the presence of a neurotoxin in the seed. The toxicity results in irreversible paralysis, characterized by lack of strength in, or inability to move the lower limbs. It is particularly prevalent in some areas of Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, and Nepal, and affects more men than women. 336 Grasspea is important locally for the poorest of the poor in many of the harshest agro-environments, especially in South Asia and Ethiopia. 337 A4.3.4 State of grape genetic resources During 1996-2004 the yield of grapes (Vitis) increased, since then it has remained constant (Figure A4.5). Grapes were grown in 2008 over a harvested area of 7 million hectares with global production of 68 million tonnes. 338 The five largest producers of grapes in 2008 were Italy (12 percent of global production), China (11 percent), the United States of America and Spain (9 percent each) and France (8 percent). In situ conservation status Little information was available from the country reports on actual numbers of traditional varieties maintained in farmers’ fields. Some 525 indigenous grape varieties are still being grown in the mountainous countryside and isolated villages in Georgia, 339 while in the Western Carpathians of Romania, more than 200 local landraces of crops have been identified. 340 Ex situ conservation status Approximately 59 600 accessions of Vitis are held in the world’s genebanks. The six largest hold between nine and four percent of the total accessions each. 341 The project “Management and Conservation of Grapevine Genetic Resources”, funded under the European Union Council Regulation (EC) No 870/2004”, lasting four years (2007-2010), has the goal of promoting an

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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