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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS optimized scheme for the safe conservation of Vitis germplasm, including V. sylvestris presently threatened with local extinction and involving several conservation means (ex situ collections, cryopreservation, on-farm conservation) so that the resources are conserved, made accessible and fieldtested in a pertinent agricultural context. 342 Field collections have been established for the 70 most important autochthonous grapevine cultivars in Portugal. 343 Field collections of local cultivars can also be found in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Georgia, Germany, Italy, Montenegro, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Serbia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine. 344 Conservation of grapevine genetic resources in the Caucasus and North Black Sea area has been promoted since 2003 under the coordination of IPGRI (now Bioversity International). New collections of local varieties have been established in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Russian Federation. 345 Genetic erosion and vulnerability Traditional grapevine varieties are still used. However the number of varieties used at a large scale has been substantially reduced. 346 The traditional grapevine crop is threatened by genetic erosion in Portugal. 347 The ECPGR Working Group on Vitis expressed serious concern for genetic erosion of the grapevine variability and clonal diversity. The causes of this erosion were listed as follows: 348 • increased international trade; • predominance of a small number of varieties in several countries; • predominance of a few clones of each single variety; • a decrease in the area of land devoted to viticulture, especially in those sites particularly rich in biodiversity; • restrictive laws not allowing the use of traditional varieties for planting and marketing. Recommendations were also expressed that each country should maintain its own traditional varieties in national or regional ampelographic collections and should also protect V. sylvestris in situ, as well as strive to preserve clonal variability as far as possible. Documentation, characterization and evaluation The European Vitis Database has been maintained since 2007 by the JKI and the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof, Siebeldingen, Germany. The aim of the database is to enhance the utilization of relevant and highly valuable germplasm in breeding. The database contains passport data of more than 31 000 accessions representing 31 Vitis collections from 21 European countries. Characterization and evaluation data on phenology, yield, quality and biotic stresses are also available for about 1 500 accessions. 349 Utilization Efforts to enhance access to diversified grape genetic resources and to promote the improvement of varieties, tastes, products and brands also by limiting the impact of grape cultivation on the environment through a reduced use of pesticides, are being supported by the European Union-funded project GrapeGen06 (2007-2010). The project is being accomplished in collaboration with wine growers and professional organizations. It also supports characterization of grape genetic resources, some of which are today either forgotten, endangered or underexploited. 350 A4.3.5 State of tree nut genetic resources Since 1996, the yield of tree nuts has moderately grown (Figure A4.5). 351 Tree nuts were grown in 2008 over a harvested area of nine million hectares with global production of eleven million tonnes. 352 The six largest producers in 2008 were the United States of America (with 15 percent of global production), China (14 percent), Turkey and Viet Nam (11 percent), and India and Nigeria (6 percent each). China produced the most diverse assemblage of this large group of tree nuts with 6 out of 8 of them, the United States of America, Italy, and Turkey each produced 5, and the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan each produced 4. 335

APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yields of miscellaneous crops (tonnes per hectare) Ex situ conservation status • Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale): about 9 800 accessions are conserved in world genebanks, with 35 percent of the accessions maintained in Ghana, 9 percent in India, 8 percent in Thailand and about 6 percent in both Brazil and Nigeria; 353 • Almond (under synonyms Prunus amygdalus, P. dulcis and Amygdalus communis): about 3 000 accessions are conserved in the world with the main collections in Italy, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Turkey; 354 • Hazelnut (species of Corylus): about 3 000 accessions are conserved worldwide, 28 percent of which are held in the United States of America and 14 percent in Turkey; 355 • Pistachio (Pistacia vera): about 1 200 accessions are in world collections, with 29 percent in the Islamic Republic of Iran and 26 percent in the United States of America; 356 • Chestnut (Castanea sativa): about 1 600 accessions are conserved worldwide, 75 percent of which are in France, Japan, Italy and Spain; 357 336 22.0 17.0 12.0 7.0 2.0 -3.0 Banana/plantain 1996 1997 Source: FAOSTAT 1996/2007 1998 1999 2000 2001 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA 2002 2003 2004 2005 Vegetables & melons 2006 Grape Tree nuts 2007 2008 • Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa): only about 50 accessions are held in world genebanks, mostly in Brazil. 358 Documentation, characterization and evaluation The European Union-funded project GEN RES 68 for the Safeguard of hazelnut and almond genetic resources (SAFENUT) (2007–2010) ensures data acquisition of the genetic diversity present in the European Mediterranean Basin, ex situ and in situ collections of Corylus avellana and Prunus dulci, as well as characterization of interesting genotypes, with particular attention to the nutritional and nutriceutical aspects of nuts. 359 Documentation of European almond accessions was part of the European Unionfunded project GEN RES 61 on Prunus (International Network on Prunus genetic resources [1996–1999]). A European Prunus Database (EPDB) was prepared including passport, characterization and evaluation data. 360

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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