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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS Genetic erosion and vulnerability Wild almond trees in Georgia are under threat due to the replacement by new varieties. 361 In the Beka’a Valley in Lebanon, all commercial almond orchards consist of one or two early-blooming varieties, thus susceptible to spring frost, explaining the observed decrease in national almond production in certain years. 362 A4.3.6 State of vegetable and melon genetic resources The yield of vegetables and melons increased slightly during 1996-2002, since then it has remained relatively constant (Figure A4.5). 363 Vegetables and melons were grown in 2008 over a harvested area of 54 million hectares with a global production of 916 million tonnes. 364 The six largest producers in 2008 were China (50 percent of global production), India (9 percent), the United States of America (4 percent), Turkey (3 percent), and the Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Iran (2 percent each). China produced the most diverse assemblage of this large group of vegetables and melons with 24 out of 25 of them, the United States of America produced 23, Turkey, Spain, and Mexico produced 20 each, Japan produced 19, and Italy produced 18. The eight most produced vegetables in 2008 were tomatoes (under synonyms Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum lycopersicum, etc.) accounting for 14 percent of total production within the vegetables and melons group, followed by watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) with 11 percent, cabbages and other brassicas (Brassica spp.) 8 percent, dry onions (Allium cepa) 7 percent, cucumbers and gherkins (Cucumis sativus) 5 percent, eggplants (Solanum melongena) 4 percent, and other melons including cantaloupes (Cucumis spp.) and peppers (Capsicum spp.) 3 percent each. Ex situ conservation status Approximately half a million accessions of vegetable crops are conserved ex situ worldwide. 365 Landraces and traditional and advanced cultivars represent about 36 percent of these total holdings, wild materials about 5 percent and genetic stocks 8 percent. AVRDC holds about 57 000 accessions of vegetable germplasm including some of the largest world vegetable collections. About 35 percent of total vegetable accessions are conserved in the national genebanks of nine countries. 366 • Tomato: almost 84 000 accessions are conserved in genebanks worldwide, 19 percent of these are advanced cultivars, 17 percent old cultivars and landraces, 18 percent genetic stocks and research materials, and 4 percent CWR. The two largest tomato collections are at AVRDC (about 9 percent of the total world collections) and USDA Northeast Regional Plant Introduction Station (8 percent); 367 • Pepper (Capsicum spp.): the global holdings of peppers account for about 73 500 accessions from more than 30 Capsicum species. The six largest Capsicum collections are at AVRDC (about 11 percent of the total world collections), the USDA Southern Regional Plant Introduction Station and INIFAP in Mexico (6 percent each), NBPGR in India (5 percent), the Instituto Agronómico de Campinas in Brazil and the National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS) in Japan (3 percent each); 368 • Cantaloupe (Cucumis spp.): about 44 300 accessions are conserved worldwide, 3 percent of these are wild relatives. C. melo is represented by 52 percent of the total accessions and C. sativum by 38 percent. The six largest collections are held in the United States of America, Japan, the Russian Federation, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; 369 • Cucurbita spp.: total accessions for this genus amount to 39 583, of these 9 867 accessions are C. moschata, 8 153 accessions are C. pepo and 5 761 accessions are C. maxima. The largest collections of this genus are found at VIR in the Russian Federation (15 percent of the total world collection), CATIE (7 percent) and CENARGEN in Brazil (5 percent). CWR are relatively poorly represented accounting for only 2 percent of the total ex situ germplasm of Cucurbita; 370 • Allium spp.: about 30 000 accessions are conserved ex situ. Onions (A. cepa) are represented by 15 326 accessions and garlic (A. sativum) by 5 043 accessions. More than 200 additional Allium species 337

338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved. CWR are well represented in the collections of the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research in Germany and of the Millennium Seed Bank Project, Royal Botanic Gardens in the United Kingdom; 371 • Eggplant (Solanum melongena): total world collections amount to about 21 000 accessions. The three largest collections with more than 1 000 accessions each, are at NBPGR in India, AVRDC and NIAS in Japan; altogether they account for 35 percent of the total ex situ holdings. CWR represent 11 percent of the total accessions; 372 • Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus): more than 15 000 accessions constitute the world collection, 42 percent of which is conserved in the Russian Federation, China, Israel and the United States of America; 373 • Carrot (Daucus carota): about 8 300 accessions from 19 Daucus species are conserved worldwide. The three largest collections with more than 1 000 accessions each, are at the USDA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station in the United States of America (14 percent of the total accessions), the Horticultural Research International, University of Warwick in the United Kingdom (13 percent), and at VIR in the Russian Federation (12 percent). CWR represent 14 percent of the total accessions. 374 Genetic erosion and vulnerability A diversity of countries reported instances of concern for diversity of several different vegetables: • in Madagascar several vegetable crops (carrot, turnip, eggplant, onion, and cauliflower) are at risk from new commercial varieties (Madagascar Country Report); 375 • in Trinidad and Tobago there is loss of diversity in vegetables crops; 376 • in Nepal there is gradual disappearance of cabbage and cauliflower landraces; 377 • in Pakistan, due to market demand and unavailability of local seeds, the rate of genetic erosion has been very high in major vegetables like tomatoes, onions, peas, okra, brinjal (eggplant), THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA cauliflower, carrots, radish, and turnips. Indigenous diversity is still found in cucurbits, bitter gourd, spinach, luffa, and species of Brassica. The genetic resources of indigenous underutilized minor-crop species face rapid destruction owing to the erosion of traditional farming culture, change of traditional food habits, and the introduction of high yielding crops; 378 • in the Philippines, there is genetic erosion in eggplant, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, bottle gourd, and tomato; 379 • in Tajikistan, due to importing new varieties and hybrids and lack of seeds of local varieties, the rate of genetic erosion has been very high in major vegetables like cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, carrots, radish, black radish, turnips, etc.; 380 • in Greece genetic erosion in vegetable crops, due to the replacement of local germplasm by modern varieties, has been 15 to 20 years behind the rate in cereals, however, in recent years, local landraces are being rapidly displaced even from backyard gardens; 381 • in Ireland, commercial horticultural production is dominated by imported modern high-yielding varieties, few or no landraces or farmers’ varieties are grown. In contrast, great diversity in horticulture crops is found in the various private gardens around the nation in the form of home-saved seed. 382 References 1 Text of the ITPGRFA with its Annex 1 list of covered crops is at http://www.planttreaty.org/texts_en.htm 2 For the figures showing the yield trends for selected crops between 1996 and 2007, the ratio of the FAOSTAT production tonnages and cultivated areas were calculated and rounded to the nearest million tonnes/hectares. 3 In addition to the chapters and appendices of this SoWPGR-2 and the contributed country reports, other sources of information for this appendix were FAO

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    documentation and characterization

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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