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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF DIVERSITY

THE STATE OF DIVERSITY Box 1.1 (continued) Examples of the use of molecular tools in conservation and characterization, as reported in selected country reports ASIA AND THE PACIFIC • Bangladesh Molecular characterization of lentil and barley has been carried out through collaboration between the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute and ICARDA. • China On the basis of modern molecular marker technology, core collections and mini-core collections have been assembled for many crops and used to associate molecular markers with targeted genes. • Fiji With collaboration from regional and international institutions, molecular approaches have been used in germplasm characterization. • India Molecular markers for disease and insect-pest resistance have been deployed for wheat and triticale improvement. • Indonesia Analysis of molecular genetic diversity was used to confirm Papua as a secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato. Molecular markers have been in use for several years for characterization of accessions of several food crops (rice, soybean and sweet potato) and for crop improvement programmes. • Japan Molecular markers have been integrated into the characterization activity of the national genebank and MAS is routine for improvement of crops such as rice, wheat and soybeans • Lao People’s Democratic Republic Molecular markers for quantitative trait loci (QTL) traits have been incorporated into rice breeding programmes. • Thailand Genetic diversity of Curcuma, mangrove tree species (Rhizophora mucronata) and Tectona grandis. The country has also used agroclimatic data together with molecular marker data in GIS studies to predict the location of diverse populations in order to identify areas for in situ conservation and for future collecting missions. EUROPE • Belgium The majority of the 1 600 apple accessions in the Centre for Fruit Culture have been described by use of molecular markers. • Estonia Molecular markers were used to map some wheat accessions. • Finland Molecular marker analysis has been used in estimations of genetic diversity in CWR. • Greece Molecular characterization and evaluation of cereal and vegetable crops have been initiated. • Ireland Analysis of the diversity of collected samples of wild oats (Avena fatua), wild rape (Brassica rapa subsp. campestris) and Irish populations of wild asparagus (Asparagus officinalis ssp. prostratus) was carried out. • Italy Molecular analysis has played a key role in evaluating the genetic variation expressed in clones of the same variety for some fruit species. • Portugal Molecular characterization of plum, apricot, cherry and almond accessions in Portuguese collections has been partially carried out. • Netherlands The Centre of Genetic Resources’ collections of lettuce (2 700 acc.) and (partly) Brassica (300 acc.) and potato (300 acc.) and a selection of eight Dutch apple collections (800 acc.) have been screened in order to improve insight into the collection structure, whereas part of the potato collection (800 acc.) has been analysed by molecular means for the presence of certain potential resistance genes. 13

14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at pinpointing the exact location where a plant was collected in the field. Such data is invaluable, especially when combined with other georeferenced data, e.g. on topography, climate or soils, and analysed using GIS software. This information can greatly facilitate decisions on what to collect and where, and can help elucidate relationships between crop production, genetic diversity and various agroecological parameters. Such techniques can also be used to draw up agro-ecological models that can predict, for example, the impact of climate change on different crops and in different locations. These methods have demonstrated through the Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy (FIGS) that they have a significant impact on the effectiveness and efficiency in ‘mining’ germplasm for specific adaptive traits for crop improvement. 25 No country report indicates the extent to which geographic information tools are available and used within the country concerned and most of the reports THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA Box 1.1 (continued) Examples of the use of molecular tools in conservation and characterization, as reported in selected country reports • Cyprus Molecular tools for the assessment of genetic material have been introduced and molecular assessment for tomato accessions is in process. • Egypt Molecular genetic data employed in PGR evaluation of accessions in national genebank. • Iran (Islamic Republic of) Molecular markers have been integrated into characterization programmes of national plant genebank and MAS and genetic transformation technologies are being used for breeding new cultivars. • Jordan Molecular biology laboratories are in place at the national research centre as well as at several universities and GIS and remote sensing are being used in three institutions. • Kazakhstan The assessment of genetic diversity and study of pedigree using molecular markers was made for wheat and barley. • Lebanon Molecular genetic characterization has been conducted for olive and almond varieties. • Morocco Molecular markers and GIS have been used in evaluation of germplasm of cereals to target regions for collection. • Oman Molecular markers used for characterizing alfalfa accessions (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA - RAPDs) and evaluating progeny in date palm breeding populations. • Yemen The national genetic resources centre has the capacity to undertake molecular characterization of germplasm. that do mention studies involving GIS do not describe the outcomes of the work. Rather, such studies appear to have been largely subsumed within crop distribution, ecogeographic and other similar studies. Their relevance to PGRFA management is not generally as well recognized as it perhaps should be. 1.2.3.3 Information and communication technologies The ability to measure and monitor the state of diversity has benefited from huge advances in information and communication technologies during the past decade, in the form of faster and cheaper computer processors with larger memory and storage capacities, incorporated into a wide range of instruments and devices equipped with more advanced software and better user interfaces. The speed and effectiveness of communication and of gathering, managing and sharing data have improved dramatically since 1996

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    CHAPTER 4 exchange of material and

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    CHAPTER 4 4.7.4 Cooperation and lin

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    CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 5 national system based on

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    CHAPTER 5 involvement vary from the

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    CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor

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    CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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