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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF DIVERSITY

THE STATE OF DIVERSITY and other published reports on diversity trends has shown that, overall, there appears to have been no substantial reduction in genetic diversity as a result of crop breeding in the twentieth century and no overall gradual narrowing of the genetic base of the varieties released. 42 However, the context of the meta analysis needs to be carefully considered to understand whether the results might be extrapolated, in particular to developing country conditions and a wide range of different crops. Whereas convincing evidence may be lacking for genetic erosion in farmer varieties on the one hand and released varieties on the other hand, much more consensus exists on the occurrence of genetic erosion as a result of the total shift from traditional production systems depending on farmer varieties to modern production systems depending on released varieties. 1.3.2 Indicators of genetic erosion and vulnerability Over the last decade, interest in direct and indirect indicators of genetic vulnerability and erosion has increased, at least in part, due to the paucity of concrete evidence for either process. The CGRFA called for the development of ‘higher level indicators’ for genetic erosion and genetic vulnerability in relation to monitoring the implementation of the GPA. The 2010 Biodiversity Indicators Programme under the auspices of the CBD brings together a large number of international organizations to develop indicators relevant to the CBD, including those for the monitoring of trends in genetic diversity. However, to date, no really practical, informative and generally accepted indicators of genetic erosion are available and therefore their development should be a priority. Several qualities are important for such indicators to be effective: • they should be sensitive to changes in the frequency of important alleles and give these more weight than less important alleles: the loss of an allele at a highly polymorphic microsatellite locus, for example, is likely to be of only minor importance compared with the loss of a disease resistance allele; • they should provide a measure of the extent of the potential loss, e.g. by estimating the fraction of genetic information at risk compared with the total diversity; • they should enable an assessment to be made of the likelihood of loss over a specific time period, in the absence of human intervention. Indicators for estimating genetic vulnerability should consider not only the extent of genetic uniformity per se, but also take into consideration possible genotype x environment interactions. A given genotype (population or variety) might succumb to a particular biotic or abiotic stress differently in diverse environments. Useful indicators of genetic vulnerability might include: • the extent of genetic diversity of genes conferring resistance to, or tolerance of, actual and potential major pests and diseases or abiotic stresses; • the extent of diversity in host-pathogen interactions and the occurrence of differential responses to different biotypes of pests and diseases. This indicator would provide information on the variety of coping mechanisms available and hence the likelihood of a shift in pathogen population resulting in widespread virulence; • the occurrence of severe bottlenecks during domestication, migration or breeding: indicators of a genetic bottleneck could be derived from molecular data, historic information or pedigree analyses; • the extent to which single varieties dominate over large areas could be a useful first indicator for estimating genetic vulnerability, based on the assumption that genetic vulnerability is higher when large areas are cropped with one variety; • the genetic distances between the parental lines of a variety could be a proxy indicator, in certain circumstances, for the degree of heterogeneity and hence genetic vulnerability of the variety. 1.4 Interdependence Interdependence regarding PGRFA can take many forms and may involve a wide range of stakeholders over space and/or time. Most crops, CWR and other useful wild plant species, are not confined within national boundaries. Their distribution reflects the 17

18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdependency illustrated by the example of cocoa genetic resources geography of ecosystems and global dispersal by humans or nature. As a result, people interested in using PGRFA often have to access material and the knowledge that goes with it, from beyond the borders of the country where they happen to be working. Whereas all countries are both providers and recipients of PGRFA, not all countries have been equally endowed with them, or with the capacity to use them. This has led to a mutual but unequal interdependence and can be seen as either a potential threat to national sovereignty or as an opportunity for constructive collaboration 43 (see Figure 1.3 and Table 1.4). The concept of interdependence applies not only to the international level, but also in the respective roles of farmers, breeders and genetic resource managers. Farmers are the managers of the genetic resources they grow, genebank managers have been entrusted with safeguarding collections of this diversity, and breeders, to a large extent, depend on both for the raw materials they need to produce new varieties for farmers’ use. All are interdependent. Considerable interdependence also occurs at the local level among farmers who frequently trade or barter seed and other planting materials with each other. Local systems of germplasm exchange are often THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA Centre of cocoa diversity Major cocoa producers Major cocoa genebanks Major cocoa consumers Major cocoa breeding institutes Major cocoa manufacturers deeply ingrained in rural societies and may be an important element in relationships among families and local communities. Such systems are generally ‘robust’ and able to cope well under stress 44 as their high level of interdependence contributes to their resilience. At the regional and global levels, a major consequence of interdependence among nations is the need for international exchange of germplasm. Studies have suggested that in many cases, such exchange has become more complex and difficult over recent years. There is a danger that reduced international flows of PGRFA may pose a threat not only to its use, but also to its conservation and ultimately to food security. These were among the key factors that led to the adoption of the ITPGRFA. With the growing impact of climate change, there will undoubtedly be an increase in demand for varieties that are adapted to the new environmental conditions and pest and disease spectra. The ability to access a wide range of genetic diversity is central to meeting this demand, implying that in future there will be even greater interdependence between countries and regions than today. Uncertainty about legal issues is widely considered to be a significant factor hindering international and

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION U

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    CHAPTER 4 exchange of material and

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    CHAPTER 4 4.7.4 Cooperation and lin

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    CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 5 national system based on

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    CHAPTER 5 involvement vary from the

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    CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor

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    CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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