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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF DIVERSITY

THE STATE OF DIVERSITY TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of global interdependency of selected crops Products/ importing countries Countries for which major consumption has been recorded 4 Major breeding and research activities Major producing countries 3 Major ex situ collections 2 Crop Region(s) of significant genetic diversity 1 China, Germany Japan, Mexico, Netherlands Oil Brazil, China, India, Japan, United States of America Seed Brazil, China, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea Argentina, Brazil, China, India, United States of America East Asia AVRDC (Regional), China, Russian Federation, Ukraine, United States of America Soybean (Glycine max) Sunflower seed France, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Turkey Oil China, India, Russian Federation, Spain, Ukraine Seed Brazil, Bulgaria, Myanmar, Spain, United States of America Russian Federation, United States of America Argentina, China, France, Hungary, India, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine, United States of America North America France, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, United States of America Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Brazil, Egypt, India, Italy, Japan China, India, Pakistan, Russian Federation, United States of America CGIAR, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, India, United Kingdom, United States of America China, France, India, Russian Federation, United States of America CGIAR, Australia, Italy, Russian Federation, United States of America Central Asia, East Africa, East Asia, Europe, South and East Mediterranean, South Asia, West Asia Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 1 Source: first SoW report. 2 Source: first SoW report and Country reports for the SoWPGR-2. 3 Source: FAOSTAT, 2007. 4 Source: FAOSTAT, 2003; for safflower import data for 2006; for quinoa and eggplant anecdotal evidence. 5 Source: FAOSTAT, 2006. 21

CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm exchange. While the CBD has been in force for many years, a lack of clear and efficient procedures for accessing PGRFA still hampers the collection and/or cross-boundary movement of genetic resources in many countries (see Chapter 7). Likewise, a number of national governments have yet to join the ITPGRFA even though it is essential for ensuring the facilitated flow of PGRFA, that as many countries as possible ratify the ITPGRFA and put in place the necessary procedures to ensure its effective implementation. Just as the world’s plant genetic resources are unevenly distributed, so is the capacity to use them. Many countries lack adequate institutions, facilities or breeders to effectively undertake modern, or even conventional, crop improvement work, especially on minor crops. Thus, there is still a heavy reliance by many countries on outside support for plant breeding, whether directly for improved varieties or indirectly through training and research collaboration. There have been a number of positive developments in this area recently, including the GIPB 45 and the development of regional centres of excellence for biotechnology, such as Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa (BECA). 46 Such centres enable scientists from developing countries to apply their knowledge and skills to specific national crop improvement challenges. These and other similar initiatives are an important aspect of interdependence and are an integral part of systems for benefit-sharing. More detail on the status of crop improvement and other uses of PGRFA is provided in Chapter 4. 1.5 Changes since the first State of the World report was published Key changes that have occurred in relation to the state of diversity since the publication of the first SoW report include: • ex situ collections have grown substantially, both through new collecting and through exchange among genebanks. The latter has contributed to the continuing problem of unplanned duplication; • scientific understanding of the on-farm management of genetic diversity has increased, and this 22 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA approach to the conservation and use of PGRFA has become increasingly mainstreamed within national programmes; • interest in and awareness of the importance of conserving CWR, both ex situ and in situ and their use in crop improvement have increased substantially; • there is growing interest in hitherto ‘neglected’ and underutilized species such as traditional vegetables and fruits; • with modern molecular genetic techniques, it has been possible to generate a large amount of data on the extent and nature of genetic erosion and vulnerability in specific crops in particular areas. The picture that is emerging is complex and it is not possible to draw clear conclusions about the magnitude and extent of these effects; • the extent of interdependence among countries with respect to their need to have access to materials held by others is arguably more important than ever. This is especially true in the face of the need to develop varieties that are adapted to the new environmental conditions and pest and disease spectra that will result from climate change. The ITPGRFA has provided a sound basis for improving and facilitating such access. 1.6 Gaps and needs Based on the information provided in this chapter, the following points describe some of the major gaps and needs that have been identified with regards to genetic diversity: • there is still an ongoing need to improve the coverage of diversity in ex situ collections, including CWR and farmers’ varieties, coupled with better characterization, evaluation and documentation of the collections; • a better understanding of, and support for, farmers’ management of diversity is still needed, in spite of significant advances in this area. Opportunities exist to improve the livelihoods of rural communities through an improved management of diversity; • there is still a need for greater rationalization of the global system of ex situ collections, as called

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    CHAPTER 4 exchange of material and

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    CHAPTER 4 4.7.4 Cooperation and lin

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    CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 5 national system based on

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    CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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