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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF IN SITU

THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT the range of genetic diversity of target species within them remains inadequately represented and many of the ecological niches that are important for wild PGRFA remain unprotected. In a study of wild peanut (Arachis spp.) in South America, it was found that the current conservation areas poorly cover the distribution of the species, with only 48 of the 2 175 georeferenced observations included in the study originating from national parks. 43 2.2.3 In situ conservation of PGRFA outside protected areas A World Bank study 44 reported that while existing parks and protected areas are the cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, they are insufficient to ensure the continued existence of a vast proportion of tropical biodiversity. A significant number of important PGRFA species, including CWR and useful plants collected from the wild, occur outside conventional protected areas and consequently do not receive any form of legal protection. 45 Cultivated fields, field margins, grasslands, orchards, recreation areas and roadsides may all harbour important CWR and other useful wild plants. Plant diversity in such areas faces a variety of threats including the widening of roads, removal of hedgerows or orchards, overgrazing, expansion in the use of herbicides or even just different regimes for the physical control of weeds. 46 The effective conservation of PGRFA outside protected areas requires that social and economic issues be addressed. This may require, for example, specific management agreements to be concluded between conservation agencies and those who own or have rights over prospective sites. Such agreements are becoming more common, especially in North America and Europe. Microreserves, for example, have been established in the Valencia region of Spain. 47 In Peru, farming communities have signed an agreement with the CIP to establish a 15 000 ha ‘Potato Park’ near Cusco where the genetic diversity of the region’s numerous potato varieties is protected by local indigenous people who own the land and who are also allowed to control access to these local genetic resources. Many CWR and other useful species grow as weeds in agricultural, horticultural and silvicultural systems, particularly those associated with traditional cultural practices or marginal environments. In many areas such species may be particularly threatened as a result of the move away from traditional cultivation systems. Several national governments, especially in developed countries 48 now provide incentives, including financial subsidies, to maintain these systems and the wild species they harbour. While such options are largely unaffordable and unenforceable throughout most of the developing world, opportunities do exist for integrating the on-farm management of landraces and farmer varieties with the conservation of CWR diversity. 49 Several countries in West Africa, for example, have commented on the important role of local communities and traditional methods in the sustainable management of grassland ecosystems. While several country reports mention that measures have been taken to support in situ conservation outside protected areas, few details have been provided. In Viet Nam, a research project on the in situ conservation of landraces and CWR outside protected areas was developed to conserve globally significant agrobiodiversity of rice, taro, litchi, longan, citrus and tea, at 11 sites in 7 provinces. The strategy was to promote community-based Plant Genetic Resources Important Zones (PGR-IZs). In Germany, the ‘100 fields for biodiversity’ 50 project focuses on the conservation of wild plant species (including CWR) outside protected areas through the establishment of a nationwide conservation network for wild arable plant species. Research in West Asia has found significant CWR diversity in cultivated areas, especially at the margins of fields and along roadsides. 51 It has also been reported that in Jabal Sweida in the Syrian Arab Republic, rare wheat, barley, lentil, pea and faba bean CWR are common in modern apple orchards. 52 2.2.4 Global system for in situ conservation areas The first SoW report recommended the establishment of a system of in situ conservation areas and the development of guidelines for site selection and management. In response, the CGRFA commissioned 35

CHAPTER 2 a study 53 on the establishment of a global network for the in situ conservation of CWR. The study report proposed conservation priorities and specific locations in which to conserve the most important wild relatives of 14 of the world’s major food crops (see Table 2.1). The report points out that about 9 percent of the CWR of the 14 crops require urgent conservation attention. A brief summary of the regional priorities presented in the report is given below: Africa High priority locations have been identified in Africa for the conservation of wild relatives of finger millet (Eleusine spp.), pearl millet (Pennisetum spp.), garden pea (Pisum spp.) and cowpea (Vigna spp.). Americas In the Americas, priority locations for genetic reserves have been identified for barley (Hordeum spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea spp.), cassava (Manihot spp.), potato (Solanum spp.) and maize (Zea spp.). Asia and the Pacific Potential genetic reserve locations have been identified for the four highest priority taxa of wild rice (Oryza spp.) and ten priority taxa related to cultivated banana/ plantain (Musa spp.). Near East The highest priority locations for conserving the wild relatives of garden pea (Pisum spp.), wheat (Triticum spp. and Aegilops spp.), barley (Hordeum spontaneum and H. bulbosum), faba bean (Vicia spp.), chickpea (Cicer spp.), alfalfa (Medicago spp.), clover (Trifolium spp.) and wild relatives of fruit trees, particularly, Pistachio (Pistacia spp.) and stone fruits (Prunus spp.) occur in this region. These highest priority sites provide a good basis for establishing a global network of CWR genetic reserves, in line with the draft Global Strategy for Crop Wild Relative Conservation and Use 54 developed in 2006. 36 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA 2.3 On-farm management of PGRFA in agricultural production systems The on-farm management and conservation of PGRFA, in particular the maintenance of traditional crop varieties in production systems, has gained much ground since the publication of the first SoW report. Many new national and international programmes have been set up around the world to promote on-farm management and the published literature over the last ten years has resulted in a clearer understanding of the factors that influence it. 55 New tools have been developed that enable this diversity and the processes by which it is maintained, to be more accurately assessed and understood 56 and there is a better understanding of the complementarities between in situ/on-farm and ex situ conservation. However, relatively little is still known about how to achieve the best balance in the use of these two approaches, or about the dynamic nature of that relationship. The country reports provided information, summarized in Table 2.1, on the extent and distribution of crop genetic diversity within agricultural production systems, the management processes that have maintained this diversity, the national capacity to support the maintenance of diversity and progress in on-the-ground conservation interventions. 2.3.1 Amount and distribution of crop genetic diversity in production systems Efforts to measure genetic diversity within production systems have ranged from the evaluation of plant phenotypes using morphological characters, to the use of new tools of molecular biology. Considerable variation exists among production systems and many country reports pointed out that the highest levels of crop genetic diversity occurred most commonly in areas where production is particularly difficult, such as in desert margins or at high altitudes, where the environment is extremely variable and access to resources and markets is restricted. Little information was available from country reports regarding actual numbers of traditional varieties

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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