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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF IN SITU

THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT TABLE 2.1 (continued) Summary of 14 priority CWR species as reported by Maxted & Kell, 2009 Suggested sites are specific protected areas or in their vicinity? (Y/N) Countries in which suggested priority site/areas should be located Known occurrence outside protected area Known occurrence inside protected area Likely occurrence inside protected area Crop High priority CWR Centres of diversity X N (except one) Georgia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Lebanon, Turkey X Transcaucasia, Fertile Crescent, Eastern Mediterranean T. monococcum subsp. aegilopoides T. timopheevii subsp. armeniacum T. turgidum subsp. aleocolchicum T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides T. turgidum subsp. polonicum T. turgidum subsp. turanicum T. urartu T. zhukovskyi Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey V. eristalioides V. faba subsp. paucijuga V. galilaea V. hyaeniscyamus V. kalakhensis X Faba bean (Vicia faba) N X Y Numerous African countries India/Southeast Asia; Tropical Africa V. unguiculata - subsp. aduensis - subsp. alba - subsp. baoulensis - subsp. burundiensis - subsp. letouzeyi - subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) V. unguiculata - subsp. pawekiae - subsp. pubescens X X Y/N Guatemala, Nicaragua Guatemala Mexico X X Mexico Z. luxurians Z. mays subsp. huehuetenangensis Z. diploperennis Maize (Zea mays) X Source: Maxted, N. & Kell, S.P. 2009. Establishment of a Global Network for the In Situ Conservation of CWR: Status and Needs. FAO CGRFA. Rome, Italy. 266 pp. 39

CHAPTER 2 maintained in farmers’ fields. The Georgia country report mentioned that 525 indigenous grape varieties are still being grown in the mountainous countryside and isolated villages, while in the Western Carpathians of Romania, more than 200 local landraces of crops have been identified. In contrast to the country reports, published scientific literature since the first SoW report contains a considerable amount of information on numbers of traditional varieties grown on farm. A major conclusion from these publications is that a significant amount of crop genetic diversity in the form of traditional varieties continues to be maintained on farm even through years of extreme stress. 57 In a study in Nepal and Viet Nam of whether traditional rice varieties are grown by many households or only a few, and over large or small areas, 58 it was found that more than 50 percent of traditional varieties are grown by only a few households in relatively small areas. Farmers’ variety names can provide a basis for estimating the actual numbers of traditional varieties occurring in a given area and, more generally, as a guide to the total amount of genetic diversity. However, different communities and cultures approach the naming, management and distinguishing of local cultivars in different ways and no simple, direct relationship exists between cultivar identity and genetic diversity. 59 2.3.2 Management practices for diversity maintenance Practices that support the maintenance of diversity within agricultural production systems include agronomic practices, seed production and distribution systems and the management of the interface between wild and cultivated species. A widespread system that conserves a wealth of traditional varieties is production in home gardens. Cuba, Ghana, Guatemala, Indonesia, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) and Viet Nam all reported that significant crop genetic diversity exists in home gardens, which can act as refuges for crops and crop varieties that were once more widespread. Farmers often use home gardens as a site for experimentation, for introducing new cultivars, or for the domestication 40 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA of wild species. Useful wild species may be moved into home gardens when their natural habitat is threatened, e.g. through deforestation, as in the case of loroco (Fernaldia pandurata) in Guatemala. 60 A recent review 61 revealed that traditional varieties and landraces of horticultural crops, legumes and grains are still extensively planted by farmers and gardeners throughout Europe and they are often found in the home gardens of rural households. Invaluable diversity of traditional varieties of many crops, especially of fruits and vegetables but also of maize and wheat, is still available, even in countries where modern commercial varieties dominate the seed systems, crop fields and commercial orchards. Many country reports indicated that ‘informal’ seed systems remain a key element in the maintenance of crop diversity on farm (see Section 4.8) and can account for up to 90 percent of seed movement. 62 While seed exchange can take place over large distances, in many cases it appears to be more important locally, especially within traditional farming systems. In Peru, for example, between 75 and 100 percent of the seeds used by farmers in the Aguaytia Valley was exchanged within the community with little going outside. 63 Access to seeds of traditional varieties of field crops can be an issue in some developed countries. In the European Union, for example, only certified seeds of officially registered varieties can be marketed commercially, although local, small-scale, noncommercial exchange of planting material remains quite common. However, the European Union Directive 2008/62/EC provides for a certain flexibility in the registration and marketing of traditional, locally adapted but threatened agricultural landraces and varieties; so-called ‘conservation varieties’. For more information on seed legislation and its impacts see Section 5.4.2. Several countries report on how the genetic makeup of local varieties depends on the effects of both natural selection and selection by farmers. In Mali, studies have shown that local varieties of sorghum collected in 1998 and 1999 matured seven to ten days earlier than those collected 20 years earlier, as the result of natural selection, farmer selection, or both. This underlines the dynamic nature of in situ management, it can result in the conservation of many

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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