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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF IN SITU

THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT on efforts to develop commercial value-added, ‘diversity-rich’ products. 2.3.4.4 Improved access to information and materials The importance of maintaining and managing information and knowledge about diversity at the community or farmer level is recognized in many country reports. A number of initiatives have been developed through the NGO community, aiming to strengthen indigenous knowledge systems, for example ‘Community Biodiversity Registers’ in Nepal, that record information on cultivars grown by local farmers. 77 Cuba, Ethiopia, Nepal, Peru and Viet Nam all report that ‘diversity fairs’ allow their farmers to see the extent of diversity available in a region and to exchange materials. In Azerbaijan, for example, action was taken by the Government to improve farmer’s PGRFA knowledge. These fairs have proven to be a popular and successful way of strengthening local knowledge and seed supply systems. 78 In Finland, the project ‘ONFARMSUOMI: Social and cultural value, diversity and use of Finnish landraces’ aims to find new ways to encourage the on-farm management of traditional crop diversity. It has developed a web based ‘landrace information bank’ to encourage and support the cultivation of landraces among farmers as well as to enhance awareness among the general public. 2.3.4.5 Supportive policies, legislation and incentives Traditional varieties are generally dynamic and evolving entities, characteristics that need to be recognized in policies designed to support their maintenance. Recent years have seen several countries enact new legislation to support the use of traditional varieties. In Cyprus, for example, the Rural Development Plan 2007-2013 is the main policy instrument covering the on-farm management of PGRFA. It contains a range of different measures to promote the conservation and use of diversity in agricultural and forest land within protected areas. In Hungary, the National Agri-Environment Programme (NAEP) has adopted a system of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA) through which areas of low agricultural productivity that have, however, high environmental value are designated for special conservation attention. (For a more extensive discussion of policy issues in relation to the conservation and use of PGRFA see Chapters 5 and 7). 2.4 Global challenges to in situ conservation and management of PGRFA The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) 79 identified five major drivers of biodiversity loss: climate change, habitat change, invasive alien species, overexploitation and pollution. Of these, the first three arguably pose the greatest threat to PGRFA and are discussed in the following sections. In addition, in many countries, the introduction of new varieties is also seen as a significant factor in the loss of traditional crop diversity and is also discussed briefly below. 2.4.1 Climate change Many country reports 80 refer to the threat of climate change to genetic resources. All the predicted scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 81 will have major consequences for the geographic distribution of crops, individual varieties and CWR. Even the existing protected area system will require a serious rethink in terms of size, scale and management. 82 Wildlife corridors, for example, will become increasingly important to enable species to migrate and adjust their ranges. Small island states, which often have numerous endemic species, are also highly vulnerable to climate change, particularly to rises in sea level. A recent study 83 used current and projected climate data for 2055 to predict the impact of climate change on areas suitable for a number of staple and cash crops. A picture emerged of a loss of suitable areas in some regions, including many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and gains in other regions. Of the crops studied, 23 were predicted to gain in terms of overall area suitable for production at the global level while 20 were predicted to lose. Another study predicted similar 43

CHAPTER 2 trends 84 including the overall loss of suitable land and potential production of staple cereal crops in Sub- Sahara Africa. Many developed nations, on the other hand, are likely to see an expansion of suitable arable land into latitudes further away from the equator. Ex situ conservation will become increasingly important as a safety net for conserving PGRFA that is threatened with extinction due to climate change. At the same time, the genetic diversity conserved in genebanks will become increasingly important in underpinning the efforts of plant breeders as they develop varieties adapted to the new conditions. Likewise in situ conservation, because of its dynamic nature, will also become more important in the future as a result of climate change. In cases where in situ populations of CWR and landraces are able to survive climate change, their evolution under climatic selection pressure will result in populations that may not only be important in their own right but also have the potential to contribute valuable new traits for crop genetic improvement. 2.4.2 Habitat change The expansion of agriculture itself, in large part due to the direct and indirect effects of a growing and increasingly urbanized human population, is one of the biggest threats to the conservation of wild genetic diversity of agricultural importance. MEA has reported that cultivated land covers one-quarter of the Earth’s terrestrial surface and that while the cropped areas in North America, Europe and China have all stabilized since 1950, this is not true in many other parts of the world. A further 10–20 percent of land currently under grass or forest will be converted to agriculture by 2050. Some countries, e.g. Argentina and the Plurinational State of Bolivia, specifically refer to the expansion of land devoted to agriculture as a major threat to CWR. 2.4.3 Invasive alien species The MEA cited invasive alien species, including pest and disease organisms, as one of the biggest threats to biodiversity. While the problem may be particularly severe on small islands, several continental countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Nepal, Slovakia 44 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA and Uganda, also specifically reported this as a threat to wild PGRFA. The problem has been exacerbated in recent years due to increased international trade and travel. Many small island developing states now have to confront huge problems of biological invasion. French Polynesia, Jamaica, Mauritius, Pitcairn, Reunion, Saint Helena and the Seychelles, are all among the top ten most affected countries based on the percentage of their total flora, under threat. 85 Cyprus reported that a variety of crop species are known as invasive alien species and are having negative effects on local biodiversity. 2.4.4 Replacement of traditional with modern varieties The replacement by farmers of traditional varieties with new, improved modern varieties, has been recognized as an issue in more than 40 of the country reports (see Chapter 1). Ecuador reported this effect in the Sierra region. Georgia, for example, cited the fact that local varieties of apples and other fruits were being replaced by introduced modern varieties from abroad and Pakistan reported that the release of high yielding varieties of chickpea, lentil, mung bean and blackgram have resulted in the loss of local varieties from farmers’ fields. Jordan reported that crops such as wild almond and historical olive trees are under threat due to the replacement by the new varieties. 2.5 Changes since the first State of the World report was published The first SoW report emphasized the need to develop specific conservation measures for CWR and wild food plants, particularly in protected areas; sustainable management systems for rangelands, forests and other humanized ecosystems; and systems for the conservation and sustainable use of landraces or traditional crop varieties in farmers’ fields and in home gardens. While there is good evidence of progress over the past decade in developing tools to support the assessment, conservation and management of PGRFA on farm, it is less evident that the in situ conservation of wild relatives

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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