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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3.1 Introduction Ex situ conservation continues to represent the most significant and widespread means of conserving PGRFA. Most conserved accessions are kept in specialized facilities known as genebanks maintained by public or private institutions acting either alone or networked with other institutions. PGRFA can be conserved as seed in specially designed cold stores or, in the case of vegetatively propagated crops and crops with recalcitrant seeds, as living plants grown in the open in field genebanks. In some cases, tissue samples are stored in vitro or cryogenically and a few species are also maintained as pollen or embryos. Increasingly, scientists are also looking at the conservation implications of storing DNA samples or electronic DNA sequence information (see Section 3.4.6). Following a general overview of the status of genebanks around the world, this chapter addresses a number of facets of ex situ conservation: collecting, types of collection, security of conserved germplasm, regeneration, characterization and documentation, germplasm movement and botanical gardens. It ends with a brief overview of the changes that have taken place since the first SoW report was published and an assessment of gaps and needs for the future. 3.2 Overview of genebanks There are now more than 1 750 individual genebanks worldwide, about 130 of which hold more than 10 000 accessions each. There are also substantial ex situ collections in botanical gardens of which there are over 2 500 around the world. Genebanks are located on all continents, but there are relatively fewer in Africa compared with the rest of the world. Among the largest collections are those that have been built up over more than 35 years by the CGIAR and are held in trust for the world community. In 1994, the CGIAR centres signed agreements with FAO, bringing their collections within the International Network of Ex Situ Collections. These were brought under the ITPGRFA (see Chapter 7). Based on figures from the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) 1 and country reports, it is estimated that about 7.4 million accessions are currently maintained globally, 1.4 million more than were reported in the first SoW report. Various analyses suggest that between 25 and 30 percent of the total holdings (or 1.9-2.2 million accessions) are distinct, with the remainder being duplicates held either in the same or, more frequently, a different collection. Germplasm of crops listed under Annex I of the ITPGRFA is conserved in more than 1 240 genebanks worldwide and adds up to a total of about 4.6 million samples. Of these, about 51 percent is conserved in more than 800 genebanks of the Contracting Parties of the ITPGRFA and 13 percent is stored in the collections of the CGIAR centres. Of the total 7.4 million accessions, national government genebanks conserve about 6.6 million, 45 percent of which held in only seven countries 2 down from 12 countries in 1996. This increasing concentration of ex situ germplasm in fewer countries and research centres highlights the importance of mechanisms to ensure facilitated access, such as that of the MLS under the ITPGRFA. The geographic distribution of accessions stored in genebanks and as safety backup samples in the SGSV is summarized in Figure 3.1 and Table 3.1. 3.3 Collecting According to the country reports, the trends reported in the first SoW report appear to have continued with respect to the decline in international germplasm collecting, an increase in national collecting and the greater importance now given to CWR. According to the country reports and on-line databases, more than 240 000 new accessions have been collected and added to ex situ genebanks over the period 1996-2007. 3 The large majority of missions collected germplasm of direct national interest, particularly obsolete cultivars, landraces and related wild species. Cereals, food legumes and forages were the main crop groups targeted. The number of accessions collected every year since 1920 and stored in selected genebanks, 4 including those of the CGIAR centres, is illustrated in Figure 3.2. There was a gradual increase in the annual collecting rate between 1920 and the 55

56 CHAPTER 3 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA FIGURE 3.1 Geographic distribution of genebanks with holdings of >10 000 accessions (national and regional genebanks in blue; CGIAR centres genebanks in beige; SGSV in green) 5 Source: WIEWS 2009; Country reports; USDA-GRIN 2009 TABLE 3.1 Regional and subregional distribution of accessions stored in national genebanks (international and regional genebanks are excluded) Region 6 Sub-region Number of accessions Africa East Africa 145 644 Africa Central Africa 20 277 Africa West Africa 113 021 Africa Southern Africa 70 650 Africa Indian Ocean Islands 4 604 Americas South America 687 012 Americas Central America and Mexico 303 021 Americas Caribbean 33 115 Americas North America 708 107 Asia and the Pacific East Asia 1 036 946 Asia and the Pacific Pacific 252 455 Asia and the Pacific South Asia 714 562 Asia and the Pacific Southeast Asia 290 097 Europe Europe 1 725 315 Near East South/East Mediterranean 141 015 Near East Central Asia 153 849 Near East West Asia 165 930 Source: WIEWS 2009 and Country reports

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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