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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION Americas Germplasm collection missions carried out in South America over the last decade included 13 by Argentina, yielding over 7 000 accessions of various crops including forages, ornamentals and forest species; 18 by the Plurinational State of Bolivia for crops of national interest including oxalis, quinoa, beans and maize; and 4 by Paraguay to collect maize, peppers and cotton. Chile carried out an unspecified number of missions that resulted in over 1 000 new accessions and Uruguay also reported collecting, mainly forages. In total about 10 000 accessions were reported to have been collected in South America. In North America, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has collected samples of more than 4 240 species since 1996, from many different countries. In total, more than 22 150 accessions have been collected of which some 78 percent were wild materials. The genera yielding the largest number of accessions were: Malus (2 795), Pisum (1 405), Poa (832), Cicer (578), Medicago (527), Glycine (434), Vicia (426) and Phaseolus (413). Canada has collected accessions of wild relatives and native crop-related biodiversity. In Central America and the Caribbean, over the past decade, Cuba has carried out 37 national collecting missions, Dominica 3 and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, mainly to collect fruits, vegetables and forages. The Dominican Republic, El Salvador and Trinidad and Tobago also reported having collected germplasm. In Guatemala, between 1998 and 2008, more than 2 300 accessions of a wide range of crops were collected including maize, beans, peppers and vegetables. Based on the country reports, about 2 600 accessions have been collected in Central America since 1996. Asia and the Pacific Many Asian country reports listed germplasm collecting missions undertaken since the publication of the first SoW report. Collectively, they resulted in more than 129 000 new accessions. India undertook 78 national missions, collecting about 86 500 new accessions of 671 species. Bangladesh added about 13 000 accessions to its national genebank through national collecting missions. Between 1999 and 2007 Japan organized 40 foreign collecting missions (rice and legumes) and 64 national ones (fruits, legumes, forages, spices and industrials). Several other Asian countries reported that they had undertaken collecting but did not provide details. In the Pacific, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Papua New Guinea and Samoa all indicated that regular germplasm collecting missions had been carried out for traditional crops including bananas, breadfruit, yams, taro and coconuts. Europe Many European countries reported collecting germplasm over the past ten years, the majority of which was collected nationally or from nearby countries. In total, more than 51 000 accessions were collected. Hungary reported having undertaken 50- 100 national missions that gathered several thousand new accessions of cereals, pulses and vegetables; Finland reported four missions in the Nordic region resulting in 136 new accessions of bird cherry and reed canary grass; Romania reported undertaking 36 national missions to collect cereals and legumes; and Slovakia carried out 33 missions nationally and in neighbouring countries that resulted in over 6 500 landraces and CWR. Poland mounted 13 missions at home, in Eastern Europe and Central Asia that collected about 7 000 new accessions and more than 2 500 accessions were collected by Portugal in 42 separate missions. Near East In-country collecting was reported by Egypt, Jordan and Morocco, the latter targeting mainly fruit trees and cereals. Missions were undertaken in Oman, in collaboration with ICARDA and ICBA, to collect barley, forage and pasture species and by national institutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan and Tunisia focusing mainly on cereals and legumes. Holdings of PGR in the national genebank of the Islamic Republic of Iran have doubled since 1996 due to extensive collecting missions conducted in the country. Both Afghanistan and Iraq, having lost considerable amounts of 59

CHAPTER 3 conserved germplasm during recent conflicts, carried out national collecting missions; Iraq mainly for cereal wild relatives and Afghanistan primarily for food staples as well as almond, pistachio and pomegranate. Collecting missions took place in Kazakhstan in 2000, 2003 and 2004, targeting cereals, fodder crops and medicinal plants and since 2000 the collecting of CWR has been conducted annually. Azerbaijan carried out 55 national missions between 1999 and 2006 that yielded more than 1 300 new accessions of a very large range of crops. According to the country reports, more than 14 000 accessions have been collected in the region over the past decade or so. However, this figure probably fails to fully reflect the total number of accessions collected in the almost 200 collecting missions carried out by countries of the region but for which, no figures were provided. 3.4 Types and status of collections Both seed genebanks and field genebanks differ in their species coverage, the extent of the crop genepool that is covered, the types of accessions conserved (CWR, landraces, breeding lines, advanced cultivars, etc.) and the origin of the material. The large majority of genebanks, however, conserve germplasm of the major crop species, on which humans and livestock rely most for food and feed. 3.4.1 International and national genebanks Eleven of the CGIAR centres manage germplasm collections on behalf of the world community: Bioversity International, CIAT, CIMMYT, CIP, ICARDA, the World Agroforestry Center (formerly ICRAF), ICRISAT, IITA, ILRI, INIBAP, IRRI and AfricaRice (formerly WARDA). The CIMMYT, ICARDA, ICRISAT and IRRI collections all comprise more than 100 000 accessions each. Collectively, the centres maintain a total of about 741 319 accessions of 3 446 species of 612 different genera (see Table 1.1 in Chapter 1). In addition, many other international and regional institutions conserve important collections, for example: 60 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA • the AVRDC maintains about 56 500 accessions of vegetable germplasm; • the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen) conserves about 28 000 accessions of a range of crops from 129 genera; • the Center for Tropical Agricultural Research and Education (CATIE) has a total of more than 11 000 accessions of vegetables, fruits, coffee and cocoa; • the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Plant Genetic Resources Centre (SPGRC) maintains more than 10 500 accessions of a range of crops important for African agriculture; • the West Indies Central Sugarcane Breeding Station (WICSBS) in Barbados conserves about 3 500 accessions; • the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad and Tobago (ICGT) at the University of the West Indies conserves about 2 300 accessions; • the Centre for Pacific Crops and Trees (CePaCT) of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community holds collections of about 1 500 accessions from several crops, including taro, yam and sweet potato. A highly significant development since the publication of the first SoW report has been the creation of the SGSV. While not a genebank in the strictest sense, the SGSV provides secure facilities for the storage of back-up samples of accessions from genebanks around the world (see Section 3.5). Around the globe, genetic resources are maintained in genebanks at the local and national level by governments, universities, botanical gardens, NGOs, companies, farmers and others in the private and public sectors. They house a wide range of different types of collection: national collections maintained for the long term, working collections maintained for the medium or short term, collections of genetic stocks or others. The four largest national genebanks are those housed at the Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (ICGR-CAAS) in China, the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation in the United States of America, 9 the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) in India and the N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) (see Table 1.2, Chapter 1). National genebanks housing more than 100 000 accessions are also found in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Japan and

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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