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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION TABLE 3.2 (continued) Holders of the six largest ex situ collections of selected crops Major holders rank 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % IITA 8 ICAR (IND007) 4 NRCRI (NGA002) 4 SAARI (UGA001) 4 IPK (DEU271) 6 W6 (USA022) 5 WPBS-GRU-IGER (GBR016) 3 AGRESEARCH (NZL001) 2 Cirad (FRA014) 13 CATIE 6 ECICC (CUB035) 5 JARC (ETH075) 4 HRI-DA/THA (THA056) 1 MIA (USA047) 1 ILETRI (IDN177) 1 NUC (SLE015) 1 IFVCNS (SRB002) 10 INRA-DIJON (FRA043) 7 ICGR-CAAS (CHN001) 6 VIR (RUS001) 6 CPAA (BRA027) 3 ICA/REGION 5 (COL096) 1 IOPRI (IDN193) 1 NUC (SLE015) 1 S9 (USA016) 4 CN (CIV010) 3 CIAT 3 ORSTOM-MONTP (FRA202) 3 IPK (DEU146) 6 DENAREF (ECU023) 4 UBA-FA (ARG1191) 3 U.NACIONAL (COL006) 2 UAC (BEN030) 7 PGRRI (GHA091) 5 DCRS (SLB001) 3 PU (LKA002) 3 DTRUFC (HND003) 4 QDPI (AUS035) 3 CNPMF (BRA004) 3 CARBAP (CMR052) 3 CEPEC (BRA074) 6 CORPOICA (COL029) 6 CATIE 6 (several) 6 KARI-NGBK (KEN015) 12 NIAS (JPN003) 4 NBPGR (IND001) 3 CIFAP-CAL (MEX035) 3 MARDI (MYS003) 9 NBPGR (IND024) 6 HRI-DA/THA (THA056) 6 PRC (VNM049) 5 TROPIC (CZE075) 10 IDI (LKA005) 9 LBN (IDN002) 9 (several) 6 KPS (UKR046) 6 HSCRI (AZE009) 6 IRTAMB (ESP014) 4 UzRIHVWM (UZB031) 4 NPGBI-SPII (IRN029) 9 DAV (USA028) 5 HSCRI (AZE009) 5 AARI (TUR001) 5 IAC (BRA006) 13 CORPOICA (COL029) 10 EENP (ECU022) 6 INRENARE (PAN002) 3 IRTAMB (ESP014) 9 GRI (AZE015) 5 ACSAD (SYR008) 4 CSIRO (AUS034) 4 65

CHAPTER 3 number of ex situ accessions are of wheat, rice, barley and maize accounting for 77 percent of the total cereal and pseudo-cereal holdings. Other large cereal holdings include sorghum (about 235 000 accessions) and pearl millet (more than 65 000 accessions). In some tropical countries, roots and tubers, including cassava, potato, yam, sweet potato and aroids, are more important as staple foods than cereals, but being more difficult to conserve, collection sizes tend to be smaller. CIP holds the world’s largest sweet potato collection (more than 6 400 accessions) as well as the third largest potato collection (representing about 8 percent of total world holdings of about 98 000 accessions) after those of the Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)-Rennes (France) and VIR (the Russian Federation). Other important collections of Solanum are found at the External Branch North of the Department Genebank, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Oil Plants and Fodder Crops in Malchow, Germany (IPK) and USDA (Sturgeon Bay, United States of America). The largest cassava collection (more than 5 400 accessions) is held by CIAT in Colombia, followed by the collections of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), in Brazil and IITA in Nigeria. The genebanks of the CGIAR centres generally represent the major repositories for germplasm of their mandate crops. For example: the world’s major wheat (13 percent of the total) and maize (8 percent of the total) collections are held at CIMMYT, that of rice (14 percent of total) is at IRRI. ICRISAT maintains the world’s largest collections of sorghum (16 percent), pearl millet (33 percent), chickpea (20 percent) and groundnut (12 percent). ICARDA houses the world’s largest collections of lentil (19 percent), faba bean (21 percent) and vetches (16 percent). CIAT is responsible for the world’s largest collections of beans (14 percent) and cassava (17 percent). China holds the largest collection of soybean germplasm (14 percent of the world’s accessions). Among fruits, Prunus species are represented by more than 69 000 accessions, including breeding and research materials, with the VIR in the Russian Federation holding 9 percent and the Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura - Centro di Ricerca per la Frutticoltura (CRA-FRU) in Italy 3 percent 66 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA of the total. Malus and Vitis species are represented by the second and third largest number of accessions, the largest collections of Malus being held by USDA in Geneva, Cornell University (12 percent), while for Vitis these are held at INRA/Centre régional de la recherche agronimique, Station de recherches viticoles (ENSA-M) in France (9 percent) and the Julius Kühn-Institut - Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI) in Germany (6 percent). After Bioversity International’s Musa collection maintained at the International Transit Centre in Leuven, the most important banana germplasm holdings are at the Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (Cirad) in Guadeloupe, Laloki Dry-lowlands Research Programme (DLP) Laloki in Papua New Guinea and the Honduran Agricultural Research Foundation (FHIA) in Honduras. Among vegetables, most accessions are of tomatoes followed by peppers (Capsicum spp.). The largest collections are at AVRDC, which accounts for about 10 percent of the total for both crops. Other important collections of tomato are held at USDA in Geneva and IPK in Germany and of Capsicum at USDA in Griffin and the Istituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP) in Mexico. Australia is the predominant holder of forage legume germplasm, with 30 percent of the world holdings of Medicago at the Australian Medicago Genetic Resource Centre (AMGRC) and 15 percent of the world’s clover holdings at the Western Australian Department of Agriculture (WADA). The most important temperate forage grasses include Festuca, Dactylis and Lolium (approximately 92 000 accessions among them). Some of the largest collections of these are held in Germany, Japan and Poland. Among the tropical forage grasses, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute’s National Genebank of Kenya (KARI-NGBK) holds the largest collection of Cenchrus, while CIAT and ILRI together hold the largest collection of Brachiaria. Among oilseed crops, sesame accounts for more than 50 000 accessions globally and sunflower almost 40 000. The largest single collections of these are held by India (17 percent) and Serbia (14 percent), respectively. Cotton is the most important fibre crop in terms of the total number of accessions held, with almost 105 000 accessions being maintained worldwide. Of these, 11 percent are held in Uzbekistan at the

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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