5 years ago



Table 3 provides a

Table 3 provides a summary of product recovery options. PRM Options Table 3: Summary of product recovery options. Level of Disassembly Repair Product Renovation Module Remanufacturing Part Cannibalization 2.3 The Package Selective recovery of parts Recycling Material Quality Demands Restore the product to full function Inspect and update critical modules Inspect all modules/parts and update them Depends on the use of other PRM options Depends on remanufacturing use Source: Krikke (1998) Resulting Product Some repaired or replaced parts Some repaired or replaced modules Used and new modules/parts in a new product Some parts reused, others discarded or sent for recycling. Materials used in new products For Bjöörn (1990 apud BRAMKLEV et al., 2001), packaging cost is between 5 and 10% of a product’s logistics costs. Lancioni and Chandran (1990) say these same costs represent about 8%, and can range between 15 and 20% of logistics costs in export operations. 12

According to Jönson (1990 apud BRAMKLEV et al., 2001), the packages are classified as follows as to their interactions with the environment: physical (exposed to damage through collisions, vibrations and other physical phenomena), environmental (gases and moisture are factors that cause the potential deterioration of the package as well as the product it contains), human (package interactions with the user, due to function, information or imposition by legislation). Packforsk (2000 apud BRAMKLEV et al., 2001) mentions the integration of the package in the supply chain considering that regardless of the material, they are produced to contain, protect, deliver and present goods, from raw materials to the final product. He also adds it is way to ensure the safe and efficient delivery of a good for final consumption, followed by the efficient reuse of the package, recovery or elimination of the material, at a minimum cost. An appropriately packages product results in less damage, less waste of resources and even makes the workplace safe from an environmental and sanitary vantage, generating more added value. 2.3.1 Package life cycle According to ABRE (2006), the Brazilian Packaging Association, the life cycle approach is used to identify environmental aspects and impacts that occur during the package’s complete life cycle (from the extraction of raw materials, manufacturing, use and disposal), thus helping to define project guidelines for environmental improvements. As per Figure 2, a project's life cycle is divided into four stages: introduction, growth, maturity and decline. Introduction is a low growth period in sales since the product is being introduced in the market and there are no profits in this stage due to heavy expenses for product introduction. Growth is a period of rapid market acceptance and substantial improvement in profits. Maturity is a period with low growth in sales because the product has already achieved acceptance by most 13

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