5 years ago



potential buyers.

potential buyers. Profits stabilize or decline due to stiff competition. Decline is when sales show a sharp drop and profits disappear. Figure 2 – Product Life Cycle Source: Kotler (2000) From a financial perspective, it is evident that besides the raw material, production, warehousing and storage costs, a product’s life cycle also includes other costs that are related to all the management of its reverse flow. It is important to consider all package life cycle stages as well as know how they may affect the environment in these different stages. It is important to guarantee that any improvement in a specific manufacturing process stage or packaging structure does not harm, even involuntarily, the environmental impact in other stages. According to CETEA/CEMPRE (2002), in returnable systems for foods and beverages, it is necessary to sterilize primary and secondary packaging between the use cycles for food security reasons. It is thus necessary to consider energy utilization and water consumption for washing packages between use cycles. Through the product’s life cycle, different environmental criteria can be considered, assessing improvements from a broad variety of potential impacts, such as: - reduction in package mass or volume (raw material savings, reducing the volume of generated waste, optimizing its transport). 14

- improvement of energy efficiency in the package manufacturing process or definition of new productive processes and recycling; - prolonging package and product life (forms of reutilization and use, reducing the need for extracting new natural resources); - choice of raw materials with less environmental impact and that are compatible with each other in terms of recycling or that are easily separated (resulting in the reuse of some parts or enabling its recycling). 2.3.2 Package trade off According to ABRE (2006), disposable packaging can have a less robust structure, requiring fewer raw materials in its composition and energy for its processing, which results in environmental gains. A large variety of raw materials and existing technologies satisfy this demand. They have different properties in terms of barriers, shapes, features and presentation among others. Since this package is discarded after consumption of the product, it should foresee forms of disassembly and recycling or reuse of raw materials employed in its structure. According to Leite (2006), packaging discarded by society has a considerably negative “ecological visibility" in some urban centers due to increased use and the fact it is often disposed of improperly, generating pollution, while also offering important economic opportunities. According to ABRE (2006), the returnable package is the one that returns to the industry for reuse. It needs to undergo reverse logistics transportation stages and the washing and sterilization process. Reverse logistics and the sterilization process for packaging need to be optimized. Its structure and technology for opening and closing must foresee product repackaging at an industrial scale. 15

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