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Flower development of Lilium longiflorum - The Lilium information ...

Flower development of Lilium longiflorum - The Lilium information ...

Floral homeotic mutants

Floral homeotic mutants of Lilium Theissen G, Becker A, Rosa AD, Kanno A, Kim JT, Münster T, Winter K-U, Saedler H (2000) A short history of MADS-box genes in plants. Plant Mol Biol 42: 115-149 Tsuchimoto S, Mayama T, van der Krol A, Ohtsubo E (2000) The whorl-specific action os a petunia class B floral homeotic gene. Genes to Cells 5: 89-99 Tzeng T-Y, Yang C-H (2001) A MADS-box gene from lily (Lilium longiflorum) is sufficient to generate dominant negative mutation by interacting with PISTILLATA (PI) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol 42: 1156-1168 Tzeng T-Y, Chen H-Y, Yang C-H (2002) Ectopic expression of carpel-specific MADS box genes from lily and lisianthus causes similar homeotic conversion of sepal and petal in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 130: 1827-1836 van der Krol AR, Brunelle A, Tsuchimoto S, Chua N-H (1993) Functional analysis of petunia floral homeotic MADS-box gene pMADS1. Genes Dev 7: 1214-1228 van Tunen AJ, Angenent GC (1993) Floral organogenesis in Tulipa. Flowering Newsletter 16: 33-37 Weigel D, Alvarez J, Smyth DR, Yanofsky MF, Meyerowitz EM (1992) LEAFY controls floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Cell 69: 843-859 Weigel D, Meyerowitz EM (1993) Activation of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. Science 216: 1723-1726 Winter K-U, Weiser C, Kaufmann K, Bohne A, Kirchner C, Kanno A, Saedler H, Theissen G (2002) Evolution of class B floral homeotic proteins: obligate heterodimerization originated from homodimerization. Mol Biol Evol 19: 587-596 Yanofsky MF, Ma H, Bowman JL, Drews GN, Feldmann KA, Meyerowitz EM (1990) The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Nature 346: 35-39 90

CHAPTER SEVEN Chapter 7 The potential of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing for speeding up functional characterisation of transcription factors Abstract Vagner A. Benedito, Peter B. Visser, Gerco C. Angenent, Frans A. Krens Plant Research International Wageningen University and Research Center, P.O. Box 16, 6700AA Wageningen, the Netherlands Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system has shown to be of great potential in plant reverse genetics. Advantages of VIGS over other approaches, such as T-DNA or transposon tagging, include the circumvention of plant transformation, methodological simplicity and robustness, and speedy results. These features enable VIGS as an alternative instrument in functional genomics, even in a high throughput fashion. The system is already well established in Nicotiana benthamiana, but efforts are being addressed to improve VIGS in other species, including monocots. Current research is focussed on unravelling the silencing mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and VIGS, as well as finding novel viral vectors in order to broaden the host species spectrum. Here, we discuss the advantages of using VIGS to assess gene functions in plants. We address the molecular mechanisms involved in the process, present the available methodological elements such as vectors and inoculation procedures, and we will show examples in which the system was applied successfully to characterize gene function in plants. Moreover, we analyse the potential application of VIGS in assessing genetic function of floral transcription factors from monocots. Most used abbreviations Antisense RNA (asRNA); double-stranded RNA (dsRNA); hairpin RNA (hpRNA); micro RNA (miRNA); nucleotides (nt); post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS); RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP); RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC); RNA interference (RNAi); small interfering RNA (siRNA); small RNA (smRNA); single-stranded RNA (ssRNA); small temporal RNA (stRNA); satellite virus-induced silencing system (SVISS); transcriptional gene silencing (TGS); virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). 91

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