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The Green Belt as a European Ecological Network strengths and gaps

The Green Belt as a European Ecological Network strengths and gaps

Kun Zhang REVIEW AND

Kun Zhang REVIEW AND GAPS: EUROPEAN ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS IN THE PAST 40 YEARS challenges. To connect trans-border projects and national, regional and local efforts are others. While ecological networks have already started to be integrated into official policy and spatial planning it is still necessary to search more actively for sound theoretical foundations and to look for more practical alternatives in the future. REFERENCES [1] Bennett, G. and W.C.U., 2004.Integrating biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: lessons learned from ecological networks. IUCN. [2].Jongman, R.H.G., 2004. The context and concept of ecological networks. In: R.H.G. Jongman and Gloria Pungetti. Ecological networks and greenways, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.8-33. [3] Jongman, R.H.G., 1995. Nature conservation planning in Europe: developing ecological networks. Landscape and urban planning, 32(3), 169-183. [4] Opdam, P., E. Steingröver and S.V. Rooij, 2006. Ecological networks: A spatial concept for multi-actor planning of sustainable landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 75(3-4), 322-332. [5] Jongman, R.H.G., Pungetti,G., 2004. The context and concept of ecological networks. In: R.H.G. Jongman and Gloria Pungetti. Ecological networks and greenways. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.1-6. [6] Jongman, R.H.G, I. Kristiansen and O.E.C.F. Council, 2001. National and regional approaches for ecological networks in Europe. Nature and environment.Council of Europe Pub. [7] Leibenath, M., A. Blum and S. Stutzriemer, 2010.Transboundary cooperation in establishing ecological networks: The case of Germany's external borders. Landscape and Urban Planning, 94(2), 84-93. [8] Jongman, R., et al., 2011. The Pan European Ecological Network: PEEN. Landscape Ecology, 26(3), 311. [9] Council, O.E. and M. Bonnin, 2007. The Pan-European Ecological Network: taking stock. Nature and Environment. Council of Europe Press. [10] Terry, A., 2006.The green belt of Europe: from vision to reality. IUCN. [11] Kohler, Y., et al., 2008.The Continuum Project. Mountain Research and Development, 28(2), 168-172. 112

Kun Zhang REVIEW AND GAPS: EUROPEAN ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS IN THE PAST 40 YEARS [12] Lambeck, R.J., 1997. Focal Species: A Multi-Species Umbrella for Nature Conservation. Conservation Biology, 11(4), 849-856. [13] Saura, S. and L. Pascual-Hortal, 2007. A new habitat availability index to integrate connectivity in landscape conservation planning: Comparison with existing indices and application to a case study. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83(2-3), 91-103. [14] Mücher, C.A., et al., 2009. Modelling the spatial distribution of Natura 2000 habitats across Europe. Landscape and Urban Planning, 92(2), 148-159. [15] Edward A, C., 2002. Landscape structure indices for assessing urban ecological networks. Landscape and Urban Planning, 58(2-4), 269-280. [16] Beier, P., K. L. Penrod, C. Luke, W. D. Spencer, and C. Cabanero. 2006. South Coast missing linkages:restoring connectivity to wild lands in the largest metropolitan area in the USA. In: K. R.Crooks and M. Sanjayan. Connectivity conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.pp,555-586. [17] Tracey, J. A. 2006. Individual based modeling as a tool for conserving connectivity. inK.R.Crooks and M.Sanjayan, editors. Connectivity conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.pp, 343–368 [18] Baranyi, G., et al., 2011. Contribution of habitat patches to network connectivity: Redundancy and uniqueness of topological indices. Ecological Indicators, 11(5), 1301-1310. [19] Erős, T., D. Schmera and R.S. Schick, 2011. Network thinking in riverscape conservation – A graph-based approach. Biological Conservation, 144(1), 184-192. [20] BOITANI, L., et al., 2007. Ecological Networks as Conceptual Frameworks or Operational Tools in Conservation. Conservation Biology, 21(6), 1414-1422. [21] Gurrutxaga, M., P.J. Lozano and G. Del Barrio, 2010. GIS-based approach for incorporating the connectivity of ecological networks into regional planning. Journal for Nature Conservation, 18(4), 318-326. [22] Bässler, C., et al., 2011. LiDAR as a rapid tool to predict forest habitat types in Natura 2000 networks. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20(3), 465-481. [23] Vanden Borre, J., et al., 2011. Integrating remote sensing in Natura 2000 habitat monitoring: Prospects on the way forward. Journal for Nature Conservation, 19(2),116-125. [24] Mouro, C. and P. Castro, 2010. Local communities responding to ecological challenges—A psycho-social approach to the Natura 2000 Network. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 20(2), 139-155. 113

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The Green Belt as a European Ecological Network strengths and gaps
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