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The Green Belt as a European Ecological Network strengths and gaps

The Green Belt as a European Ecological Network strengths and gaps

Stefanie Maack, Tuuli

Stefanie Maack, Tuuli Veersalu, Henri Järv, Asnate Ziemele CULTURAL HERITAGE PILOT PROJECTS AT THE BALTIC GREEN BELT 1 THE BALTIC GREEN BELT Part of the European Green Belt stretches out for 1.700 kilometers along the southern and eastern Baltic Sea coast between Lübeck, Germany, in the south and the Finnish-Russian border in the north (fig. 1). Unlike the rest of the European Green Belt, which mainly covers terrestrial habitats, this Baltic Green Belt section is characterised as coastal. Until 2009, the vision of the European Green Belt to create the backbone of an ecological network form the Barents to the Black and Adriatic Seas was virtually unknown in the countries along the Baltic Green Belt (Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland) [1]. Since then, it has been the selfassigned task of the Baltic Green Belt project to spread the vision and point out to the chances for sustainable development related to it. Figure 1: Map of the Baltic Green Belt area within the European Green Belt, * indicates Lahemaa National Park (map: Baltic Green Belt project, 2009) During Soviet times, large parts of the Baltic Green Belt coastline including several islands were fully or partly closed to the public [2], access was only granted by special permission, coastal fisheries were strictly limited, schools, hospitals and other social infrastructure was closed down. These social incentives urged many people to move further inland. The coasts being outer borders of the Eastern Block between 1945 and 1991, were however, used for military purposes. Numerous relicts of military activities can be found at the coast, especially along the coasts of Estonia and Latvia. Today, while long stretches of the European Green Belt are still remote and partly economically uninteresting, the coastline of the Baltic Sea Region is becoming an important tourism, recreational and residential area[2]. Due to the restrictions during Soviet times, coastal build-up is much less pronounced and the coastlines are much more pristine habitats than at other European coasts[3] – the common feature of all Green Belt regions. Currently, there are more than 500 protected areas within 25 kilometers of the line of mean water level, which can be used as a technical definition of the former Iron Curtain[4]. Based on data for the protection status of the marine[5] and the terrestrial[6] side of the Baltic Green Belt, we can estimate that in each country along the Baltic Green Belt about 30-40 % of the length will be formally protected once the NATURA 2000 designation process has been fully completed [4]. However, resources for further conservation (management planning and implementation) are limited. 116

Stefanie Maack, Tuuli Veersalu, Henri Järv, Asnate Ziemele CULTURAL HERITAGE PILOT PROJECTS AT THE BALTIC GREEN BELT In this current situation we cannot expect more large-scale designation of protected areas in the near future. Taking into account the rapid growth of tourism in many parts of the Baltic Green Belt, a pro-active development of sustainable tourism based on the Green Belt heritage seems to be a promising approach to maintain the heritage itself – both natural and cultural. The combination of nature experience and recent history is a unique selling point in tourism marketing for the European Green Belt. However, the cultural heritage – meaning military objects from the period of the Iron Curtain (1945-1991) is not well known in most parts of the Baltic Green Belt. In this article, we present two approaches of assessing and using the cultural Iron Curtain heritage for Green Belt development. Based on expert interviews with main actors as well as external observers, we derive lessons learned during the implementation and in the end conclude some recommendations for future coastal development. 2 CULTURAL HERITAGE BASED ZONING IN LAHEEMA NATIONAL PARK; ESTONIA The Estonian Green Belt holds an outstandingly high number of cultural heritage objects form Iron Curtain times. One of the major tasks of the Baltic Green Belt project was to systematically inventorise the cultural heritage and make it available for sustainable regional planning. Regional planning in the coastal zone of Estonia is mainly focused as touristic development. The inventory was carried out by the Estonian University of Life Sciences in accordance with existing legal standard procedures in cultural heritage management (full documentation see [2]). Here, we show how the cultural heritage was used for zoning of one of the most important National Parks in Estonia. This zoning ultimately aimed at the long-term harmonic co-existence of intact nature and profitable tourism and landuse and shall thus serve as a good practice example. 2.1 Heritage of Lahemaa National Park The largest and oldest national park of Estonia� – Lahemaa - was created in 1971. Lahemaa is known for the great number of landscapes characteristic to Estonia.[7] The national park is located in Northern Estonia (fig. 1) bordering the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Finland), and falls mainly into the administrative territories of two local governments (Kuusalu municipality and Vihula municipality). It comprises, besides mainland and some peninsulas protruding far into the sea, a part of the aquatic area of the Gulf of Finland, including several bays, small bights and inlets. The park protects forest, swamps and coastal ecosystems, natural and heritage landscapes, agricultural land use, balanced environmental use, a specific regional settlement structure, geological monuments (the Baltic klint), and cultural heritage including military objects, farm architecture and folk culture. Lahemaa territory is fully declared as Natura 2000 Bird Protection Area and a Special Area of Conservation and across all its territory. In the National Park, two main landscape units re distinguished: cultivated and natural landscapes. In the cultivated landscapes, limited economic activities and organized recreational activities are allowed. The natural landscapes comprise on the one hand the areas, which have preserved their natural condition (nearly 70 %) and where human activities are prohibited, and on the other hand natural landscapes of regulated use, where such human activities not causing irreversible changes in the nature, are allowed. Historically, the region’s 117

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