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Copyright by Eunyoung Park 2007 - The University of Texas at Austin

Copyright by Eunyoung Park 2007 - The University of Texas at Austin

derivative of it may prove beneficial in reducing drug-resistant colon tumor hepatic metastases. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by American Cancer Society Research Scholar Grant #03-233-01-CNE and NIH Grant #1R21CA120414-01A1. 89

FIGURE 4.1. RETINOL DECREASES PI3K ACTIVITY. Total protein was isolated from HCT-116 (A) and SW620 (B) cells treated with 0 (vehicle control), 1, or 10 μM retinol for 30 min after 24 h of serum starvation. PI3K was immunoprecipitated using IRS-1 antibody as described in the Materials and Methods section. Immunoprecipitated PI3K was incubated with PI for 10 min followed by incubation with [γ- 32 P] ATP for 20 min. Following incubation, the lipids were extracted and separated by TLC. PI3K activity was normalized to total PI3K protein. Total PI3K was detected using p85 antibody. Total PI3K protein was normalized to β-actin. Data are reported as mean ± SEM, of three independent experiments. *Significantly different from control (P < 0.05) 90

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