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Copyright by Eunyoung Park 2007 - The University of Texas at Austin

Copyright by Eunyoung Park 2007 - The University of Texas at Austin

FIGURE 5.3. DIETARY

FIGURE 5.3. DIETARY VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION REDUCES TUMOR MULTIPLICITY IN MICE SUBJECTED TO THE CHEMOPREVENTION DIETARY REGIMEN. BALB/cAnNCr-nu/nu female mice, aged 6 to 8 wks, were randomly divided into two groups. The first group consumed the control diet, containing 2,400 IU vitamin A/kg diet. The second group consumed a diet supplemented with 200,000 IU vitamin A/kg diet. The mice consumed these diets ad libitum for one month prior to surgery. To generate metastases, the mice were intersplenically injected with 2 x 10 6 HCT-116 cells in 50 μl of magnesium and calcium free HBSS. Following surgery, the mice continued to consume their respective diets for five weeks. After five weeks, all mice were sacrificed and their livers examined visually for the presence and number of metastases. Data shown are mean ± SEM, n=14. *Significantly different from control (P < 0.05). 115

FIGURE 5.4. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DATA FROM CHEMOPREVENTION STUDY. Consecutive slides of liver metastatic tumor were stained with CK20, MMP-2, and MMP-9 (A). In addition, consecutive slides of liver metastasis sample were stained with CK20, total Akt, and phospho-Akt (B). One representative sample is shown. The level of active Akt was not altered by vitamin A supplementation (C). Data shown are mean ± SEM, n=5. 116

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