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Copyright by Eunyoung Park 2007 - The University of Texas at Austin

Copyright by Eunyoung Park 2007 - The University of Texas at Austin

Acknowledgements I would

Acknowledgements I would like to thank my research advisor, Dr. Michelle Lane for her education, guidance, patience, encouragement and support. I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation to all my committee members, Dr. Susan Fischer, Dr. Andrea Gore, Dr. Kimberly Kline and Dr. Philip Tucker for their support and guidance. I also thank our current and former lab members, especially Alice Dillard and Kally O’Reilly for their support not only as lab members but also as friends. Finally, I would like to thank my husband Jae Kyoung Son, my parents Yong Jun Park and Sun Hee Hwang, and my sisters Jin Young Park and Ha Young Park for their love, encouragement, and help in completing my work successfully. iv

Retinol Inhibits the Growth and Invasion of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Resistant Colon Cancer in vitro and in vivo Publication No._____________ Eunyoung Park, PhD. The University of Texas at Austin, 2007 Supervisor: Michelle Lane Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and cause of death due to cancer in the United States. Death due to colorectal cancer is generally caused by hepatic metastasis rather than the primary tumor itself. The five-year survival rate is only 10% for patients whose colorectal cancer metastasized, which indicates the need for more effective therapies to treat colon cancer. The diet contains (1) preformed vitamin A as retinyl esters in animal-derived food sources and (2) provitamin A carotenoids in plant-derived food sources. Once absorbed, retinol is re-esterified and transported to the liver, the major site of vitamin A storage. Therefore, dietary vitamin A supplementation can increase retinol levels in the colon and liver, potentially affecting both primary colon tumors and liver metastases of the primary tumors. All-trans–retinoic acid (ATRA) is thought to regulate most of the effects of retinoids, via the ATRA/RAR/RARE pathway exerting an inhibitory effect on cancer growth and progression. As cancer progresses, colon cancer acquires the resistance to v

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