Views
5 years ago

The Global Effort to Eradicate Rinderpest - International Food Policy ...

The Global Effort to Eradicate Rinderpest - International Food Policy ...

Figure 5.

Figure 5. The last known occurrences of rinderpest since 1995 Source: FAO GREP. During its evolution as the principal international standard-setting organization, the OIE came to play an increasingly important role in the GREP by publishing guidelines such as those for surveillance and freedom accreditation in association with the Terrestrial Animal Health Code Rinderpest Chapter, as well as the diagnostic and vaccine standards contained in the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. At all stages of the process, GREP secretariat staff contributed to the formulation of technical guidelines and were active partners in the processes, just as the OIE contributed to GREP technical consultations organized by the FAO. The OIE was also involved with the FAO in the PARC and PACE as members of steering committees and played an active role in guiding strategy decisions. As the GREP evolved and the rinderpest freedom accreditation process became the predominant focus, the OIE assumed responsibility for providing guidelines for application and for policing the accreditation of countries through its Scientific Commission, aided by the establishment of an ad hoc rinderpest group. Now in 2009, both organizations are working toward a joint declaration in 2010 that global freedom has been achieved, an event planned by the GREP since its inception. 26

7. ACCREDITATION OF RINDERPEST FREEDOM Unlike with some of the more contentious areas of interaction, the collaboration of the FAO and the OIE in encouraging and aiding national authorities to apply for rinderpest freedom accreditation was exemplary. One of the most difficult elements of the rinderpest eradication process to manage with regard to the verification of rinderpest freedom was making the transition from mass vaccination to surveillance. There is a marked tendency for annual, pulsed vaccination campaigns to become an institutionalized activity. Until the mid-1990s, the global distribution of rinderpest and the relationship of outbreaks to endemic reservoirs were poorly understood. As a result of the uncertainty this induced, many countries sought security in annual vaccination campaigns even if these became increasingly less effective with the passing of time. In retrospect, many countries in Africa and Asia continued to implement annual vaccination campaigns to control rinderpest for many years after it had been eradicated from their territory and the risk of reinvasion had become minimal. The inability to differentiate between antibodies induced by TCRV and the wild virus infection sustained an uncertainty of rinderpest status and, thus, tended to support the continuing use of campaign vaccination , as did a lack of trust and communication among countries on disease status. PARC-initiated discussions about vaccine withdrawal culminated in the convening of an expert group on rinderpest surveillance systems by the OIE in Paris in 1989. The resulting guidance provided in a document entitled Recommended Standards for Epidemiological Surveillance Systems for Rinderpest were subsequently adopted by the OIE, became part of the Rinderpest Chapter of the Animal Health Code, and were later referred to as the OIE Pathway. In essence, the guidance had laid out a three-step process (provisional freedom, freedom from disease, and freedom from infection), which constituted a series of verifiable epidemiological objectives against which progress towards eradication could be measured over a period of six to seven years from the last case detected, or four to five years from cessation of the vaccination. Most significantly, cessation of the vaccination was integral to the adherence to the OIE Pathway, while completing all steps on the OIE Pathway (disease searches and serosurveillance) was expected to be far less costly than continuing with endless rounds of mass vaccination. This OIE Pathway served very well as a template for countries to follow until 2007, when the accreditation process was amended to a two-year process of surveillance, taking into account the changed global status of rinderpest. After the inception of the PARC and GREP, rinderpest disease intelligence improved considerably, resulting in a more complete global picture. The communication of risk information through regional fora combined with the promotion of the OIE Pathway gave countries the courage to cease relying on vaccination and begin the verification and accreditation of rinderpest freedom. At last a solution to the terminal problem of JP15 had been found. Countries were encouraged to manage the cessation of vaccination in an active manner: to cease routine use of vaccination by decree; to subsequently issue a vaccine only in emergencies under direct control of a chief veterinary officer; to withdraw vaccine stocks from the field and secure them in vaccine banks, monitoring their efficacy; and, to withdraw viruses from laboratories and sequester them in a national repository with an inventory. As success was achieved in clearing countries from rinderpest, the focus of attention rapidly moved away from vaccination to surveillance to demonstrate the absence of infection. Innovative programs were established that combined participatory approaches (Jost et al. 2007) with conventional epidemiological techniques. Increasingly, the accreditation of freedom became the most important action needed and as such, the FAO GREP worked closely with the OIE, becoming increasingly active in encouraging and assisting countries in completing the accreditation process. Progress in accreditation is illustrated in Figure 6. While the accreditation process is progressing relatively well, as of 2009, the year of this publication, there is cause for concern that the accreditation of all countries individually might not be possible before the end of 2010 if the present process is followed. Rinderpest eradication is increasingly of little interest to countries that have more pressing disease issues 27

2009 Global Hunger Index - International Food Policy Research ...
Global Hunger Index - International Food Policy Research Institute
Sustainable Food Security for All by 2020 - International Food Policy ...
Global Eradication of Infectious Diseases - Alape
International efforts for policies on Shipping Emissions - EFCA
International Agricultural Research for Food Security, Poverty ...
View - International Livestock Research Institute
3rd Summer Academy on Global Food Law & Policy 25-29 July 2011
Green Revolution: Curse or Blessing? - International Food Policy ...
Eight Years of Doha Trade Talks - International Food Policy ...
Food Irradiation: A Global Food Safety Tool - International Food ...
More Aid for African Agriculture: policy options for ... - UK Food Group
the global crisis and korea's international financial policies
4th Summer Academy on Global Food Law & Policy 23-27 July 2012
About For Books International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for Multinational Enterprises (Global HRM) Unlimited
About For Books International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for Multinational Enterprises (Global HRM) Unlimited
References and Bibliography - International Food Policy Research ...
Economic Transformation in Ghana - International Food Policy ...
FMD Hemispheric eradication efforts - Caribvet
MAXIMO TORERO, Ph.D. - International Food Policy Research ...
The Challenge of Hunger - International Food Policy Research ...
Ending Hunger in Africa - International Food Policy Research Institute
From the Ground Up: Impacts of Pro - International Food Policy ...
In Pursuit of Votes - International Food Policy Research Institute
Re-Greening the Sahel - International Food Policy Research Institute
publications - International Food Policy Research Institute
Rich Food for Poor People - International Food Policy Research ...
Agriculture - International Food Policy Research Institute
Appendix 2 - International Food Policy Research Institute
Table of Contents - International Food Policy Research Institute