174 4 - VECHT REGION taxon freq. (%) Urtica dioica 98 Atriplex prostata/patula 85 Chenopodium album 83 Solanum nigrum 83 Phragmites australis 72 Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani 63 Polygonum aviculare 59 Persicaria lapathifolia 59 freq. = frequency Table 4.2 Swifterbant-S3, waterlogged macroremains, taxa that occur in a high frequency in the 27 standardised samples that contained cereal remains (based on Van Zeist and Palfenier-Vegter 1981). 22.214.171.124 Wood analysis The published wood identifications consist primarily of wood remains from S3 and S5 of the excavations in 1975 and additionally posts, pegs and sticks from S3 and S5 of 1972-1974. The sampling in 1975 involved an area of 39 m 2 next to the house, where charcoal was collected as well. The number of excavated wood remains at S3 is c. 750 but not all remains were investigated/identified (Casparie and De Roever 1992; Deckers et al. 1980). The number of pieces collected at S5 (channel next to S3) is very small and their anthropogenic context is not assured. Malus-type represents Crataegus sp., Malus sp., Pyrus sp. and possibly Prunus sp. (Casparie et al. 1977). The wood remains can be divided into unworked and worked wood. The results are shown in tables 4.3 and 4.4. It is argued that “most wood was brought in by Neolithic man”, and that these men “exploited the alder-rich deciduous woodland in the neighbourhood” without severe selection (Casparie et al. 1977, 37). The absence of woodland at the levee is supported by the absence of the remains of trunk or root systems at S3. The indications of import imply that the wood assemblage may represent a selection of taxa from the natural vegetation. The identifications of unworked wood (N = 92) consist of twigs, chips/bits and remaining pieces. It has been suggested that a bundle of twigs of Ulmus sp. supports the practice of leaf-foddering at Swifterbant (Casparie et al. 1977). Although such a function of the twigs cannot be excluded, leaf-foddering is not demonstrated here because there is no supporting information on the context of the find that could give information on the specific use or function of this bundle of twigs. The worked wood remains consist of posts, pegs and sticks, and a minority of other remains. The published data contain information on 142 posts, mostly pointed. Alnus sp., Corylus sp. and Fraxinus sp. dominate the spectrum of posts. Fraxinus sp. appears to have been selected for posts (Casparie et al. 1977). Comparing the various wood and charcoal assemblages, it can be added that Salix sp. is underrepresented in the assemblage of posts, and was probably avoided during the building of structures. There is no information on identifications from single structures. 4 4 Recognised structures are houses and series of posts. A series of posts at S3 consisted of 14 posts at the southern side of the levee at a distance of 0.4 metres of each other. At S2 a similar series of eight stakes was excavated along the eastern side of the ridge of the levee (diameter posts: 3-5 cm, distance: 0.4-0.5 metres) (Van der Waals 1977).
taxon 4 - VECHT REGION category twigs chips other total (N) Alnus sp. - 24 9 33 Betula sp. - 1 2 3 Corylus sp. - 1 11 12 Fraxinus sp. - - 2 2 Malus-type - 4 - 4 Populus sp. - - 1 1 Quercus sp. - 3 2 5 Salix sp. - 9 5 14 Ulmus sp. 17 1 - 18 - = not present Table 4.3 Swifterbant-S3, unworked wood (Casparie et al. 1977). N % N category posts 1 posts 2 posts total posts total other function taxon Alnus sp. 47 10 57 40 1 paddle Betula sp. 4 3 7 5 - Corylus sp. 27 6 33 23 2 1 haft Fraxinus sp. 11 8 19 13 1 haft Malus-type 5 1 6 4 1 'bow' Populus sp. - 1 1 1 - Quercus sp. 7 3 10 7 1 paddle Salix sp. 7* 2 9 6 2 haft and 'wattlework' total 108 34 142 8 posts 1:S3 en S5 (excavation 1975) * = four pieces with distinct gnaw marks of beaver posts 2: excavation 1972-1974 - = not present Table 4.4 Swifterbant-S3, worked wood (Casparie et al. 1977). 175