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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

184 4 - VECHT REGION

184 4 - VECHT REGION 4.3.2.2 Macroremains analysis The macroremains of the sections indicate a eutrophic freshwater wetland environment (vegetation of open water, bank zone, marshes and alder carr) and did not contain carbonised remains or remains of crop plants. The botanical macroremains from all other contexts are shown in table 4.8. The remains are preserved in waterlogged and carbonised states, and as impressions. The total number of remains is very low due to poor preservation (and possibly to other factors such as deposition and taphonomy) and can therefore not be considered as representative. The identifications contain three important groups of plants: potential wild food plants, remains of crop plants and taxa that are indicative of disturbance (ruderals and pioneers of dry terrain). Crop plants and disturbance indicators are discussed below. The taxa that probably represent wild food plants are Quercus sp., Corylus avellana, Rubus fruticosus and Trapa natans. Of all these taxa some macroremains were present in a carbonised state, thus supporting handling by humans and indicating occupation during autumn, except for Rubus fruticosus that was only preserved in a waterlogged state. Nevertheless a carbonised fruit of Rubus sp. was present, supporting handling of this taxon. Macroremains of other trees and shrubs were not found in the presented contexts. 4.3.2.3 Crop plants All relevant parts of sections contained pollen grains of cereals including Hordeum-type and Cerealiatype dating to the period before 3700 BC (see table 4.9). Macroremains from cereals were preserved in a carbonised state and as impressions in pottery. The assemblage contained grains and chaff remains of Triticum dicoccon (emmer), and grains of Hordeum vulgare var. nudum (naked barley), corresponding with the pollen identifications. Concentrations of carbonised cereals were absent. True absence of chaff remains of naked barley was not demonstrated since the number of samples other than section samples sieved on a 0.25 mm sieve is unknown. The assemblage of crop plants also contained a single waterlogged seed of Papaver somniferum ssp. setigerum. The age of this seed is Neolithic (Gehasse 1995, 103). trench 89-17 89-17 89-17 83-1 84-2a 87-7 deposit 200 32 31 7010 7010 402 number of samples 2 1 1 1 1 1 taxon Triticum-type + - - + + + Hordeum-type + - - + - + Cerealia-type + - - + - - Poaceae > 40 µm (wild grasses) + + + - - + Poaceae > 40 µm (indet.) - - - - - + + = present - = not present Table 4.9 Schokland-P14, cereal and grass pollen from sections (Gehasse 1995). 4.3.2.4 Arable weeds Table 4.8 shows various macroremains identifications of potential arable weeds found at Schokland-P14. Gehasse (1995, 63) suggests that the waterlogged remains from the posthole sample may be of recent age (not further explained;). The only disturbance indicator (of moist to wet terrain) that is found in a carbonised state is Chenopodium glaucum/rubrum.

4 - VECHT REGION trench 87-? 89-? 89-17 89-17 89-17 89-17 posthole layer/feature GSW+ ABCDE GSW GSW A B C E 90-64 taxon Woodland vegetation of dry terrain Corylus avellana 271, 63 c - - - - - - - Quercus sp. 2, 1 c - - - - - - - Rubus sp. 1 c - - - - - - - Rubus fruticosus s.l. 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Ruderals and pioneers of dry terrain - - - - - - - - Chenopodium ficifolium, r? - - - - - - - 4 Ranunculus acris/repens, r? - - - - - - - 2 Rumex acetosella, r? - - - - - - - 1 Solanum nigrum, r? - - - - - - - 1 Stellaria media, r? - - - - - - - 2 Crop plants Hordeum vulgare - - - - - - - 1 c Hordeum vulgare var. nudum - - 1i 1i 1 c 1 c - 2 c Hordeum vulgare, juvenile - - - - - - - 1 c Triticum dicoccon - 2i - - - - - - Triticum dicoccon, rachis internodia - 1i - 1c - - - - Triticum dicoccon, spikelet forks - 1i - - - - - - Wetland pioneer vegetation Chenopodium glaucum/rubrum - - - - - - - 1 c Open water vegetation Trapa natans, spines 3, 2 c - - - 2 c 1 c 1 c - GSW = Swifterbant layer in other trenches than trench 89-17 i = impression in pottery c = carbonised r? = possibly recent x, yc = x macroremains including y carbonised macroremains - = not present Table 4.8 Schokland-P14, macroremains from botanical samples, a posthole sample, the archaeological 2 and 4 mm sieve residues and handpicked finds (Gehasse 1995). 185

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