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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

164 -11.5 c -7.5 Eem

164 -11.5 c -7.5 Eem system -9.5 -11.5 6 -8.5 b -2.5 4 - VECHT REGION a IJssel/Vecht system -10.5 -9.5 -3.5 -5.5 -4.5 -2.5 -7.5 -6.5 3 Schokland 4 lodgement till inland dunes Figure 4.1 The Vecht and Eem region, the Pleistocene subsurface (m –NAP; after Peeters 2007). a = Noordoostpolder, b = Eastern Flevoland, c = Southern Flevoland, 1 = Emmeloord-J97, 2 = Urk-E4, 3 = Schokland-P14, 4 = Schokkerhaven-E170, 5 = Swifterbant, 6 = Hoge Vaart-A27. Urk 5 -6.5 -8.5 2 -7.5 -5.5 Tollebeek -4.5 1 -3.5 -3.5 -4.5 -3.5 -1.5 -3.5 -1.5 0 5 km

4 - VECHT REGION than the result of a continuous open connection. The marine connection between the lagoon and the North Sea at this time is sought in the Amsterdam area and the province of Noord-Holland (Oer-IJ and Bergen tidal inlet; e.g. De Mulder et al. 2003). During this period, marine incursions were of stronger impact than during previous phases (Gotjé 1993). Sedimentation processes continued after the studied period and resulted in partial erosion of the Middle Holocene deposits. During the Late Mesolithic and Neolithic, islands of relative high topography of various geomorphology stood out in the marshy lagoon and were occupied by people. The highest elevated islands were outcrops of glacial till. These generally shrunk in size through time, but none submerged completely within the timeframe studied here. The Late Glacial inland dunes gradually submerged, becoming unsuitable for occupation during the timeframe of interest. Some of the natural levees along channels may have been suitable for occupation for limited time, depending on their height. These levees developed along the larger and smaller fluvial and tidal channels, especially during the first phase marine clay deposition (c. 5200-4000 BC). The rising ground water table is the main factor controlling the suitability of dryland patches for occupation. A reconstruction of the ground water table rise is therefore an essential element of a reconstruction of occupation history of an archaeological site over time. The ground water level curve available for this region Urk Older Unio clay Younger Unio clay 0 2 km Figure 4.2 Noordoostpolder, Vecht region, palaeogeographic reconstruction showing the distribution of the Older and Younger Unio clays, deposited at c. 5200-4000 BC and c. 3700-3400 BC respectively (after Gotjé 1993). Schokland 165

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