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4. FERAL UNGULATE SPECIES IMPACTS ON NAVY LANDS

4. FERAL UNGULATE SPECIES IMPACTS ON NAVY LANDS

1 2 Draft Ungulate

1 2 Draft Ungulate Management Plan Table 5-1. A Summary List of Techniques for Ungulate Control Considered, Along With Their Advantages and Disadvantages Technique Advantages Disadvantages Ground hunting Capable of removing enough individuals to be effective Cost per animal is relatively low Effective in accessible areas Only target animals are taken Results are immediate Rapid removal of many animals Aerial hunting Effective along steep, rugged and inaccessible terrain Does not leave human scent Does not require paths or roads Only target animals are taken Results are immediate Rapid removal of many animals Recreational hunters Ungulate Control Specialists Cost per animal is low Provides public access to game resources Good Public Relations Capable of removing enough of a population to be effective for ungulate control Cost effective Intensity and duration of hunting can be dictated by the control program Less effective along steep, rugged and inaccessible terrain, and in dense vegetation Safety issues Leaves human scent Requires paths or roads Undertaken by professional hunters only Canopy cover limits effectiveness High risk Helicopter time is expensive Weather conditions affect scheduling Noise By itself, fails to remove enough of a population to be effective control Effectiveness low where densities are low and access is limited Safety issues Presence of amateur hunters makes animals wary of humans and therefore makes it harder for ungulate control specialists to control numbers. Focus on trophy animals Resistance to reducing ungulate numbers to a lower level Possible poaching or take of non-target species Leaves human scent Can cause friction with recreational hunters Limited safety issues Leaves human scent Joint Region Marianas – Naval Base Guam September 2012 5-2

Draft Ungulate Management Plan Technique Advantages Disadvantages Hunting with dogs Live trapping (including corrals) Capable of removing enough of a population to be effective Cost effective Intensity and duration of hunting can be dictated by the control program Effective for animals that have evaded other methods Dogs increase efficiency of ungulate control specialists Multiple animals can be taken at once Could catch animals that avoid other methods of control Non-target animals captured can be released unharmed Allows potential to relocate animals to other areas Snares Effective for pigs and goats Relatively inexpensive Could catch animals that avoid other methods Effective at low densities Can catch animals breaching fence Lethal baits Very effective Cost effective Modest labor requirements Can be aerially distributed in remote areas Well-trained dogs are expensive and can be hard to obtain Dogs could be injured or killed by target animals or firearms Should only be utilized by professional ungulate control specialists Inadequately trained dogs could take nontarget animals Some concerns regarding humaneness of method Animal take per day is low compared with some other methods In unfenced areas, could drive animals into sensitive natural areas Could cause friction with recreational hunters Requires road or helicopter access Traps are heavy and require multiple personnel to operate Less effective when food is plentiful (bait is less attractive) Considerable time needed to find attractive bait or condition animals to take bait Non-target animals could become trapped Trap shyness could preclude some individuals from capture Must be checked regularly to reset and add bait Some concerns regarding humaneness of method Ineffective for carabao Low public acceptance Potential harm if snared too long Non-target animals could become snared Snares can’t be used with hunting dogs Could be less humane than other methods Not licensed for use in Guam. Joint Region Marianas – Naval Base Guam September 2012 5-3

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