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Addiction and Opiates

Addiction and Opiates

Addiction and Opiates CHAPTER 1 METHOD AND PROBLEM questionable, unreliable, and even false propositions have been based on the examination of very many instances. "Pure' or "enumerative" induction refers to the type of analysis in which the dependability of one's inferences depends solely on the number of instances examined. "Induction by analogy" or "analytic induction" refers to another mode in which the validity of conclusions depends on something other than the sheer number of examined instances, such as their variety, the extent of one's knowledge of each of them, and the circumstances presented by each. The crucial experiment of the classical form may be taken as a prototype of the latter mode. Such terms as "cause" and "causal process" have been used as a matter of convenience in this discussion and will be used repeatedly in subsequent pages to refer to the special kind of relationships that are affirmed by universal theories. The substance of the methodological position that has been briefly sketched here could have been described without the use of these terms, just as there are many inquiries made within the deterministic framework which never make use of them. On the other side of the fence, some social science statisticians have recently made considerable use of the concept "cause," giving it a very different meaning from that which it has traditionally had or that it has here. Others reject the concept altogether and urge that the latest developments in sub-atomic physics have totally discredited it along with the entire logic and philosophy of nonstatistical determinism. Since this drastic conclusion is currently under debate and is rejected by many eminent natural scientists and logicians, it is premature for social scientists to accept it as given. Considering the vast differences between the theoretical sophistication of modem physics and modern sociology, the rejection of causality and determinism by the latter looks more like an attempt to dodge problems than to solve them. It is possible that the lesson which the social scientist might learn from these statistical theories of modern physics is the more modest one that strict causality and determinism are inappropriate concepts at that level of analysis in which individual instances are lost sight of and are merged in the description of aggregates. Since individual human beings, unlike electrons, are accessible to direct observation it is unnecessary to study them only in the aggregate. 1. E. H. Sutberland, The Professional Thief (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1937). 2. As quoted by Charles E. Terry and Mildred Pellens, The Opium Problem (New York: Committee on Drug Addictions and the Bureau of Social Hygiene, 1928), p. 602. 3. George H. Mead, "Scientific Method and Individual Thinker," in John Dewey (Ed.), Creative Intelligence (New York: Henry Holt, 1917); A. D. Ritchie, Scientific Method. An Inquiry into the Character and Validity of Natural Laws (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1.923), PP. 53-83. 4. Kurt Lewin, A Dynamic Theory of Personality (New York: McGraw-,?Tm, 1935), pp. i8-ig, 24. 5. R. B. Braithwaite, Scientific Explanation: A Study of the Function of Theory, Probability and Law in Science (New York: Harper Torchbooks, ig6o), p. 9. 6. Florian Znaniecki, The Method of Sociology (New York: Rinehart, 1934), PP. 232-33. file:///I|/drugtext/local/library/books/adopiates/chapter1.htm[24-8-2010 14:23:31]

CHAPTER 10 FEDERAL ANTI-NARCOTICS LEGISLATION file:///I|/drugtext/local/library/books/adopiates/chapter10.htm[24-8-2010 14:23:32] PART II Opiate Addiction as a Social Problem CHAPTER 10 FEDERAL ANTI-NARCOTICS LEGISLATION The Harrison _Act, passed in 1914, profoundly changed the nature of the narcotics problem in the United States. This law was intended as a revenue and control measure and was not designed to penalize the user of the drug, to whom no direct reference was made. The enforcement of the law was entrusted to the Bureau of Internal Revenue of the U.S. Treasury Department. It was evidently assumed or hoped that by requiring all persons who handled drugs to register with the government and maintain records the flow of drugs would be subject to public control. The act applied equally to cocaine and to opiates and made no distinctions between them. It required all persons who imported, manufactured, produced, compounded, sold, dealt in, dispensed, or gave away any derivative of opium or of coca leaves (cocaine) to register with the Collector of Internal Revenue, to pay special taxes, and to keep records of their transactions. Preparations containing minute quantities of cocaine or of opiates were exempted from the regulations. Certain of the provisions of Section 1 came to be of crucial importance for the addict. They ran as follows: It shall be unlawful for any person to purchase, sell, dispense, or distribute any of the aforesaid drugs except in the original stamped package or from the original stamped package ... provided, the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply . . . to the dispensing, or administration or giving away of any of the aforesaid drugs to a patient by a registered physician, dentist, or veterinary surgeon or other practitioner in the course of his professional practice, and where said drugs are dispensed or administered to the patient for legitimate medical purposes, and the record kept as required by this Act.(1) The interpretation of the phrases "legitimate medical purposes" and "in the course of his professional practice" has led to controversy between enforcement agencies and those medical men who insist that prescribing drugs for an addict falls within the legitimate province of the physician. In Section 2 of the act a similar statement and a similar exception occur: It shall be unlawful for any person to sell, barter, exchange, or give away any of the aforesaid drugs except in pursuance of a written order of the person to whom such article is sold, bartered, exchanged, or given.... Nothing contained in this section shall apply to the dispensing or distribution of any of the aforesaid drugs to a patient by a physician, dentist, or veterinary surgeon registered under this Act in the course of his professional practice only.(2) Again in Section 8 the following statement occurs: It shall be unlawful for any person not registered under the provisions of this Act ... to have in his possession or under his control any of the aforesaid drugs . . . provided, that this section shall not apply ... to the possession of any of the aforesaid drugs which has or have been prescribed in good faith by a physician, dentist or veterinary surgeon registered under this Act. (3) Some physicians have felt that the phrases "legitimate medical Purposes," "professional practice," and "prescribed in good faith" mean that they are entitled to regard addiction as a disease and the addict as a patient to whom they may prescribe drugs to alleviate the distress of withdrawal. English drug laws do interpret addiction in this manner and allow physicians to prescribe drugs for addicts. If the Harrison Act bad been interpreted in this mailner, American addicts would have been able to buy low-cost legitimate drugs and the illicit traffic in these drugs would probably not have developed. There is virtually no illicit traffic in opiates in England. The Treasury Department has, however, interpreted the Harrison Act to mean that a doctor's prescription for an addict is unlawful although exceptions are allowed in the case of the aged and infirm addicts for whom withdrawal of the drug might result in death and in the case of addicts suffering from incurable disease.(4) It is specified in this connection that physicians will be held accountable if through carelessness or lack of sufficient

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