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Addiction and Opiates

Addiction and Opiates


CHAPTER 2 THE EFFECTS OF OPIATES pharmacological effects of the drug, but are consequences of the role which he is forced to adopt in our society, that is of his social, economic, and legal situation. The reversal of effects which occurs during the process of establishing tolerance and physical dependence on opiates makes it impossible for non-addicts to share the experiences of the chronic user. The attempt to understand the addict from one or a few experiences with morphine inevitably produces only misunderstanding. The varied and paradoxical aspects of the opiate habit have long offered challenging theoretical problems to behavioral scientists and have generated theories which are about as varied, paradoxical, and inconsistent as is the behavior of addicts. 1. Howard S. Becker, "Becoming a Marihuana User," American Journal of Sociology (1953), 59: 235-42. 2. Henry K. Beecher, Measurement of Subjective Responses (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), PP. 321-41. 3. Quoted by Charles E. Terry and Mildred Pellens, The Opium Problem (New York: Committee on Drug Addictions and the Bureau of Social Hygiene, 1928) p. 186. 4. Lawrence Kolb, "Pleasure and Deterioration from Narcotic Addiction," Mental Hygiene (1925), 9: 704. 5. Edouard Sandoz, "Report on Morphinism to the Municipal Court of Boston," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1922), 13: 13. 6. It is repeatedly said that certain psychoneurotic types are peculiarly susceptible to the pleasurable effects of narcotics. See, for example, Report of the Departmental Committee on Morphine and Heroin Addiction (London: British Ministry of Health, 1926); Lawrence Kolb, "Drug Addiction in Its Relation to Crime," Mental Hygiene (1925), 9: 74-89, and "Pleasure and Deterioration from Narcotic Addiction," Mental Hygiene (1925), 9: 699-724; Paul Sollier, "Hysterie et morphinomanie." Revue Neurologique (1903), 11: 855; and Terry and Pellens, op. cit., Index entry, "psychopaths, predisposition of." 7. Louis Faucher, Contribution a l'etude du reve morphinique et de la morphinomanie (thesis, University of Montpellier, no. 8, igio-ii). 8. Ibid., p. 18 ff. 9. A. B. Light, E. G. Torrance, W. G. Karr, Edith G. Fry, and W. A. Wolff, Opium Addiction (Chicago: American Medical Association, 1929), pp. 10-11. Reprinted by permission. 10. Sandoz, op. cit., p. 13. 11. Quoted by Terry and Pellens, op. cit., pp. 6o 1-602. 12. Casar Amsler, "Ueber Gewohnung an narkotische Gifte und Entwohnung davon, insbesondere ueber Morphingewohnung und Entwohnung," Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift (1935), 48: 815-18. See also on this point Terry and Pellens, op. cit., PP. 2.33, 26o. 13. "Report of the Mayor's Committee on Drug Addiction to the Honorable R. C. Patterson, Jr., Commissioner of Correction, New York City, American Journal of Psychiatry (1930-31), 10: 509. (Hereinafter referred to as "Report of Committee on Drug Addiction to Commissioner of Correction, New York City.") A portion of this report was written by Charles Schultz. 14. Ibid., P. 519. 15. R. N. Chopra and J. P. Bose, "Psychological Aspects of Opium Addiction," Indian MedicalGazette(1931), 66: 663-66. 16. "Report of Committee on Drug Addiction to Commissioner of Correction, New York City," op. cit., P. 518. 17. Unpublished speech at the Fifth Annual Conference of Committees of the World Narcotic Defense Association and International Narcotic Education Association (New York, 1932). file:///I|/drugtext/local/library/books/adopiates/chapter2.htm[24-8-2010 14:23:33]

CHAPTER 2 THE EFFECTS OF OPIATES 18. Light, Torrance, et al., op. cit., p. 315. 19. Terry and Pellens, op. cit., p. 515. 20. Lawrence Kolb, "Drug Addiction-A Study of Some Medical Cases," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry (1928), 20: 178. 21. R. N. Cbopra, "The Present Position of the Opium Habit in India," Indian Journal of Medical Research (1928), 16: 389-439. 22. See "The Opium Habit," Catholic World (September, 1881), 33: 827-35. 23. Chopra, loc. cit. 24. Roger Dupouy, "Morphinomanie familiale d'origine therapeutique: deux morts; deux guerisons, apres vingt ans de morpliinisme continu," Encephale (1912), 2: 499. 25. Ivan Ostromislensky, "Morphinism," New York Medical Record (1935), 141: 556. file:///I|/drugtext/local/library/books/adopiates/chapter2.htm[24-8-2010 14:23:33]

Opioid Addiction