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Addiction and Opiates

Addiction and Opiates

CHAPTER 3 HABITUATION

CHAPTER 3 HABITUATION AND ADDICTION 5. Dansatier and Rietb, op. cit., p. 59. 6. John A. O'Donnell, "The Relapse Rate in Narcotic Addictiori: A Critique of Followup Studies," in Daniel M. Wilner and Gene G. Kassebaum (Eds.), Narcotics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965), pp. 226-46. 7. Dansauer and Rietb, op. cit., case no. 588, -p. 96; see also pp. 92, 94, and 97. 8. See ibid., p. 97, for authors' description of these cases. 9. Thus Charles Schultz in "Report of the Committee on Drug Addiction to Commissioner of Correction, New York City," American Journal of Psychiatry, (19331), 10: 492, as the result of careful experimentation on 318 patients with different kinds of cures, remarks: "As far as 'obliterating the craving for narcotics' by immediate medical treatment, we have found this 'craving' to be present after all treatments. The patients look forward to being discharged, in fact count the days, and if not discharged when they expect to be, some of them go into a state resembling frenzy, so great is their apparent eagerness to revert to drugs. Every imaginable excuse and pretext will be tried in order to be discharged sooner." 10. This preoccupation of the addict with the drug in his system is brought out in an amusing way by the fact that some of Schultz' patients, who volunteered for the cure, "refused to take hot showers for fear that the ensuing perspiration might cause a loss of some of their morphine." 11. Bernhard Legewie, "Delirium beim Morphinismus, Zugleich ein Beitrage zur Frage der Gewohnung, Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie (1924), 89: 558-78, quoted by C. E. Terry and M. Pellens, The Opium Problem (New York: Committee on Drug Addictions and Bureau of Social Hygiene, 1928), P. 236. 12. James C. Layard, "Morphine," Atlantic Monthly (1874), 33: 705, 13. "Sigma," "Opium Eating," Lippincott's Magazine (April, 1868), 1: 409. 14. Alonzo Calkins, Opium and the Opium Appetite (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1871), P. 188. 15. T. D. Crothers, Morphinism and Narcomanias from Other Drugs (Phil adelpbia: W. B. Saunders, 1902), P. 138. 16. Quoted by Terry and Pellens, op. cit., p. 616. 17, Kurt Poblisch, "Der Verbreitung des chronischen Opiatsmissbrauchs in Deutschland,'' Monatschrift fur Psychiatrie und Neurologie (1931), 79: 1-32. 18. Ibid., pp. 3-4. 19. Ibid. 20. Lawrence Kolb, "Drug Addiction: A Study of Some Medical Cases," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry (1928), 20: 174. 21. Johannes Biberfeld, "Zur Kenntnis der Morphingewohnung. 11, Ueber die Spezifizitat der Morphingewohnung," Biochemische Zeitschrift (1916), 77: 283. See also S. D. S. Spragg, "Morphine Addiction in Chimpanzees," Com parative Psychology Monographs (1940), 15: 120 ff. Spragg agrees with Biberfeld's statement concerning experiments other than his own. It is my opinion that Biberfeld's observations also apply to Spragg's work. file:///I|/drugtext/local/library/books/adopiates/chapter3.htm[24-8-2010 14:23:34]

Chapter 4 THE NATURE OF ADDICTION file:///I|/drugtext/local/library/books/adopiates/chapter4.htm[24-8-2010 14:23:35] PART I The Nature of the Opiate Habit Chapter 4 THE NATURE OF ADDICTION The nature of the process in which addiction is established may perhaps be most effectively presented by describing a few selected instances which exemplify it in an especially clear-cut manner. The first of these cases is quoted from an article by L. L. Stanley; (1) the second and third are based upon interviews that I conducted. The assumption underlying the analysis of the nature of the addiction process presented in this chapter is that the special and extraordinary craving of the addict is derived in a learning process from the repetition of a certain kind of experience with the drug which all addicts have. The point of this discussion therefore is to isolate and describe this experience from which the "hook" in addiction is derived. The three accounts that follow should be considered, not as three unique historical accounts of how addiction was established several decades ago, but rather as especially critical instances from which it may be possible to infer what the universal features are in the acquisition of the pattern of behavior that addiction constitutes. "Case 1. In 1899 1 went to the Philippine Islands with the Third Infantry, landing in Manila in March. Along about the end of my service I developed dysentery and as a result became so weak that from 140 pounds I went down to 100 pounds. I would report at the sickline and the doctors would give me C and 0 (camphor and opium) pills. These pills I took for four months until the time of my discharge in 1900. Returning from Manila on the Sherman, I was so weak that I had to go to bed I felt miserable, and the steward accused me of being an opium smoker. At this time I did not know anything about the habit, and did not know what made me so restless and nervous. After my discharge I could not sleep. I met an ex soldier who said, 'I know what's the matter with you. You've been up against the pipe. You'd better start to shoot it.' Before this, though, be bad given me laudanum and yenshee, which relieved my habit. I bought a gun and began to use two one-fourth grain tablets three times a day. I used more and more until I was using thirty grains a day." Case 2. Before 1910, Mr. R. became acquainted with a number of persons who were using heroin nasally. At this time heroin was cheap and not regarded as habit-forming. He bad once tried cocaine and found it unpleasant but observed that heroin seemed to have different effects, transforming a weak and miserable man into a normally alert one. He tried it once and liked it, and, inasmuch as it was cheap, be bought a dime's worth and kept it in his room. Every now and then, whenever it occurred to him or when he felt particularly downcast, he used a little. At first be used it only every few weeks or so, but gradually he began to take it more and more frequently, until, after five years of intermittent use, he had gone from once a month use to once a week, to once a day, and finally to several times a day. He did not realize that he was in any danger of acquiring a habit even when be used it every day. In the morning he took a sniff before be went to work, to arouse himself. Then, toward the latter part of the afternoon, when he noticed a let-down feeling, which he attributed to the blazing sun under which he was forced to work, he found that a sniff of heroin, which be now carried about with him, enabled him to finish out the day's work in a satisfactory state of mind and body. He bad no idea that be was booked. Somewhat later, while Mr. R. was on his way to Chicago, he made plans to be picked up by a friend in Joliet, but when his friend failed to appear be became worried, since he did not have sufficient funds to pay his fare. Having exhausted his heroin supply, he threw away the empty box and did not think of buying another. Gradually he noticed that he did not feel well; his eyes and nose were running and he yawned incessantly. He began to wonder if he was getting the flu. He walked into a restaurant, for he suddenly realized that be bad not eaten for a long time, but the sight of food repelled him and he left without eating. At the corner drug store he might have purchased all the heroin he needed for only a dime, but it did not occur to him to do so. Instead, he attempted to obtain money from a stranger whom he accosted and to whom he explained his condition, but be was turned down. This affected him so much that he could not accost another prospect. By catching a ride on a train, he finally got into Chicago that night, and early the next morning, feeling more miserable

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