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2 µm - eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

2 µm - eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

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64. Hoffmann, M., Skirl, S., Pompe, W. and Roedel, J.: “Thermal Residual Strains and Stresses in Al2O3/Al Composites With Interpenetrating Networks”, Acta Materialia, 47 (2), (1999), 565- 577. 65. Hoffmann, M., Fiedler, B., Emmel, T., Prielipp, H.; Claussen, N., Gross, D. and Roedel, J.: “Fracture Behaviour in Metal Fibre Reinforced Ceramics”, Acta Materialia, 45 (9), (1997), 3609-3618. 66. Evans, A.G.: “Design and Life Prediction Issues for High-Temperature Engineering Ceramics and their Composites”, Acta Materialia, 45 (23), (1997), 23-28. 67. Kolhe, R., Hui, C.Y., Ustundag, E. and Sass, S.L.: “Residual Thermal Stresses and Calculation of the Critical Metal Particle Size for Interfacial Crack Extension in Metal-Ceramic-Matrix Composites”, Acta Materialia, 44 (1), (1996), 279-287. 68. Knechtel, M., Prielipp, H., Müllejans, H., Claussen, N. and Rödel, J.: “Mechanical Properties of Al/Al2O3 and Cu/Al2O3 Composites with Interpenetrating Networks”, Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia, 31 (8), (1994), 1085- 1090. 69. Mizumoto, M., Murano, T. and Kagawa, A.: “Microstructure Control of Particle Reinforced MMC Fabricated by Low-Pressure Infiltration Process”, Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, 66 (4), (2002), 371-376. 70. Young, T. : “An essay on the cohesion of fluids”, Phil. Transactions of the Royal Society London, 65 ,(1805), 98-102. 71. Naidich, J.V. : “Wettability of Solids by Liquid Metals”, Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, 14, (1981), 353-485. 72. Gallois, B.M. : “Wetting in Non-reactive Liquid Metal-Oxide Systems”, JOM, 49 (6), (1997), 48-51. 73. Diemer, M., Neubrand, A., Trumble, K.P. and Rödel, J. : “Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure and Oxygen Content on the Wettability in the Copper-Oxygen-Alumina System”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 82 (10), (1999), 2825- 2832. 74. Kubaschewski, O. and Hopkins, B.E. : Oxidation of Metals and Alloys, Butterworth, London, 1968. 75. Rocha-Rangel, E., Becher, P.F. and Lara-Curzio, E. : “Reactive Wetting of Alumina by Molten Aluminium Alloys”, Materials Science Forum, 442, (2003), 97-102. 76. Shen, P., Fujii, H., Matsumoto, T. and Nogi ,K. : “Critical Factors Affecting the Wettability of Alpha- Alumina by Molten Aluminium”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 87 (7), (2004), 1265-1273. 77. Saiz, E. and Tomasia, A.P. : “Kinetics of Metal-Ceramic Composite Formation by Reactive Penetration of Silicates with Molten Aluminium”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 81 (9), 1998, 2381- 2193. 78. Brewer, L. and Searcy, A.W. : “The Gaseous Species of the Al-Al2O3 System”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 73 (11), (1951), 5308-5314. 79. Nakae, H., Inui, R., Hirata, Y., and Saito, H. : “Effect of Surface Roughness on Wettability”, Acta Materialia, 46 (7), (1998), 2313-2318. 80. Sobczak, N., Asthana, R., Ksiazek, M., Radziwill, W. and Mikulowski, M. : “The Effect of Temperature, Matrix Alloying and Substrate Coatings on Wettability and Shear Strength of Al/Al2O3 Couples”,: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A , 35A (3), (2004), 911-923. 81. Ksiazek, M., Sobczak, N., Mikulowski, M., Radziwill, W. and Surowiak, I. : “Wetting and Bonding Strength in Al/Al2O3 System”, Materials Science and Engineering A, 324 (1-2), (2002), 162-167. 82. Li, J.G. : “Wetting and Interfacial Bonding of Metals with Ionocovalent Oxides”, Rare Metals, 10 , (1992), 255-261. 83. John, H. and Hausner, H. : “Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure on Wetting Behaviour in the System Al/Al2O3”, Journal of Materials Science Letters, 5, (1986), 549-551. 84. Asthana, R. : “An Analysis for Spreading Kinetics of Liquid Metal on Solids”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 26 (5), (1995), 1307-1311. 243

85. Gennes, P.G. : “Wetting: Statics and Dynamics”, Reviews of Modern Physics, 57 (3-1), (1985), 827-863. 86. Asthana, R. : “Dynamic Wetting Effects during Infiltration of Metals”, Scripta Materialia, 38 (8), (1998), 1203-1210. 87. Aksay, I.A., Hoge, C.E. and Pask, J.A. : “Wetting under Chemical Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Conditions”, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 781(12), (1974), 1178-1183. 88. Laurent, V., Chatain, D. and Eustathopoulos, N. : “Wettability of SiO2 and Oxidized SiC by Aluminium”, Materials Science and Engineering A, 135, (1991), 89-94. 89. Schmalzried, H. and Navrotsky, A. : Festkörperthermodynamik, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 1975. 90. Landry, K., Rado, C., Voitovich, R. and Eustathopoulos, N. : “Mechanism of Reactive Wetting: The Question of Triple Line Configuration”, Acta Materialia, 45 (7), (1997), 3079-3085. 91. Kritsalis, P., Coudurier, L. and Eustathopoulos, N. : “Contribution to the Study of Reactive Wetting in the CuTi/Al2O3 System”, Journal of Material Science, 26, (1991), 3400-3408. 92. Kritsalis, P., Drevet, B., Valigna, N. and Eustathopoulos, N. : “Wetting Transitions in Reactive Metal/Oxide Systems “, Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia, 30 (9), (1994), 1127-1132. 93. Espié, L., Drevet, B. and Eustathopoulos, N. : “Experimental Study of the Influence of Interfacial Energies and Reactivity of Wetting in Metal/Oxide Systems”, Metallurgical and materials transactions A, 25A (4), (1994), 599-605. 94. Friedrich, B., Hammerschmidt, J. and Steophasius, J.-C.: “Aluminothermische Reduktion von Titandioxid”, Erzmetall 56 (2), (2003), 82-93. 95. Sobczak, N., Stobierski, L., Radziwill, W., Ksiazek, M. and Warmuzek, M. : “Wettability and Interfacial Reactions in Al/TiO2”, Surface and Interface Analysis, 36, (2004), 1067-1070. 96. Arpon, R., Narciso, J., Louis, E. and Garcia-Cordovilla, C. : “Interfacial Reactions in Al/TiC Particulate Composites Produced by Pressure Infiltration”, Materials Science and Technology, 19 (9), (2003), 1225- 1230. 97. Odegard, C. and Bronson, A. : “The Reactive Liquid Processing of Ceramic-Metal Composites”, JOM, 49 (6), (1997), 52-54. 98. Weirauch, D.A. : “Interfacial Phenomena Involving Liquid Metals and Solid Oxides in the Mg-Al-O System”, Journal of Materials Research, 3 , (1988), 729-739. 99. Nakae, H., Fujii, H. and Sato, K. : “Reactive Wetting of Ceramics by Liquid Metals”, Materials Transactions JIM, 33 (4), (1992), 400-406. 100. Shen, P., Fujii, H., Matsumoto, T. and Nogi-K.: “Critical factors affecting the wettability of alphaalumina by molten aluminium”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 87 (7), (2004), 1265-1273. 101. Zhou, X.B., and Hosson, M. : “Reactive Wetting of Liquid Metals on Ceramic Substrates”, Acta Materialia, 44 (2), (1996), 421-426. 102. Mortensen, A. : “Interfacial Phenomena in the Solidification Processing of MMC”, Materials Science and Engineering, A135, (1991), 1-11. 103. Garcia-Cordovilla, C., Louis, E. and Narciso, J. : “Pressure Infiltration of Packed Ceramic Particulates by Liquid Metals”, Acta Materialia, 47 (18), (1999), 4461-4479. 104. Asthana, R. and Rohatgi, P.Z. : “Melt Infiltration of Silicon Carbide Compacts” Zeitschrift der Metallkunde, 83 (12), (1992), 887-892. 105. Mortensen, A. and Michaud, V. : “Infiltration of Preforms by a Binary Alloy: Part I. Theory”, Metallurgical Transactions A, 21A (7), (1990), 2534-2547. 106 Jonas, T.R., Cornie, J.A. and Russell, K.C. : “Infiltration and Wetting of Alumina Particulate Preforms by Aluminium and Aluminium-Magnesium Alloys”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 26A, (1995), 1491-1497. 244

  • Page 1 and 2:

    Pressure Infiltration Behaviour and

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    ABSTRACT In the pressure infiltrati

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    CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. LITER

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    4.8.3 Evaluation of infiltration be

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    Symbol Meaning γRv surface energy

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    Symbol Meaning TYS tensile yield st

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    these materials are the detrimental

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    2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Materials

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    changes in the oxide film chemistry

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    or inside the bulk fluid only. Inte

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    that are most effective in decreasi

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    initiation stress of 25 %. Further,

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    Beffort (36) suggested that even th

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    einforcement interface and reinforc

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    It is interesting to note that, for

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    20 Table 2.1 Compilation of the mec

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    General models to predict fracture

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    with values observed by others for

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    The work of adhesion characterises

  • Page 39 and 40:

    and vapour, is difficult to evaluat

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    system Al-Al2O3 is 10 -49 Pa at 700

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    In the Al-Cu system, although the p

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    The heat of reaction ΔGr may be es

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    al. (100) who found non-wetting beh

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    capillary or threshold pressure has

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    using constant gas pressure. Infilt

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    The superficial velocity v0 in the

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    The permeability K can be expressed

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    2.4. Preform fabrication Composites

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    According to Kniewallner (51) even

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    2.4.3. Foamed preforms Another inte

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    structure. This is shown schematica

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    2.5.1. Gas pressure infiltration (G

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    MMCs infiltrated with an Al-9Mg or

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    layer oxide films. The Weber number

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    Long et al. (50) suggested that v0

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    3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The influ

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    sintered at 1550°C, which represen

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    using a AVT-Horn (Aalen, Germany) m

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    squares fit function within the MAP

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    areas, SsBET ,of the powders were m

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    with dimensions of 65 mm x 46 mm x

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    The preform sintering process was o

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    in the evaporation of mercury at lo

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    The compressive strength, σc , of

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    as the measured mean value 0.23. Th

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    for 90 s to ensure complete solidif

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    ottom punch surface. The temperatur

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    A graphic presentation of the relat

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    detected. This operation took appro

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    modulus Edyn of the unreinforced al

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    calculated using the methods outlin

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    Positive volume changes were predic

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    Figure 4.5 Droplet formation of the

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    with the metal alloy IM: examples a

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    As shown in Figure 4.9, apart from

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    4.3.2 Powder specific surface area

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    The particles of TO and MO were dis

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    oom temperature and 270°C, with a

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    obtain usable products when they we

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    strengths, whereas with 10 and 20 w

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    strength showed no significant diff

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    Relative change in dimension s x, s

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    (a) AOPC20 (b) AGPC15 2 µm (c) TOP

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    At higher magnification, Figure 4.2

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    intrusions started at 4 µm and end

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    As shown in Figure 4.27, the pore s

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    An overview of the specific values

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    1.71 to 1.98·10 6 m²/m³. The sim

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    logarithmic compression behaviour,

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    The volumetric stiffness Eiso of th

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    Figure 4.37 shows that the TOPC20 p

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    unhindered through the gap between

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    intrusions and the other areas were

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    4.8.1 Unreinforced matrix propertie

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    die, Tmelt,die , could not be recor

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    pressure was recorded as a function

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    the linear fits for AOPC20, TOPC20

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    4.8.6 Non destructive testing of MM

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    X-Y Y-Z Figure 4.51 Virtual cross-s

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    The metal filling the intragranular

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    the ceramic particles was not visib

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    etween the dark grey ceramic phases

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    The windows, one of which is marked

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    potential interfacial reactions, th

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    In order to determine the effect of

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    Infiltration depth L² L² (mm²) /

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    4.8.12 Microstructure of MMCs with

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    minor fraction of suboxides with hi

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    4.9. High pressure die casting infi

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    In the Y-Z plane section in Figure

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    4.9.2 Compression of preforms The c

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    Relative preform compression c pr (

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    decrease depended on the tooling us

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    Bending stress σ (MPa) / MPa 500 4

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    4.10.3 Influence of reinforcement t

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    Significant deformation developed i

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    a) b) 2 50 2 50 µm µm 2 50 2 50

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    5. DISCUSSION First the properties

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    The measured elastic modulus, Edyn

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    The MMCs showed similar wear with t

  • Page 203 and 204: interfacial debonding: Peng et al.
  • Page 205 and 206: The area Sml was derived using data
  • Page 207 and 208: MMC. Due to the solidification shri
  • Page 209 and 210: measurements which resulted in a lo
  • Page 211 and 212: 5.1.5 Influence of reactions No rea
  • Page 213 and 214: 5.2. Preform pore formation The tar
  • Page 215 and 216: kinetics were reported to be rather
  • Page 217 and 218: The newly formed water vapour led t
  • Page 219 and 220: In order to achieve minimum porosit
  • Page 221 and 222: the present work. These pressures w
  • Page 223 and 224: indicated by zero values of the fre
  • Page 225 and 226: influence on the pO2,calc. The lowe
  • Page 227 and 228: during extended holding and acts as
  • Page 229 and 230: Compared to Hg, the Al melt may con
  • Page 231 and 232: preforms with IM, Figure 4.67. For
  • Page 233 and 234: preform compression, cpr , increase
  • Page 235 and 236: Specific Specific permeability Perm
  • Page 237 and 238: Permeability (m²) / m² 1x10 -12 1
  • Page 239 and 240: As the predominant fluid flow was a
  • Page 241 and 242: In the CP mode, the Preform 1D code
  • Page 243 and 244: Local Saturation saturation S () lo
  • Page 245 and 246: listed in Table 5.1 and 5.3 were us
  • Page 247 and 248: 6. CONCLUSIONS 1. An aqueous proces
  • Page 249 and 250: anged between 112 and 131° for the
  • Page 251 and 252: 8. REFERENCES 1. Altenpohl, D.: Alu
  • Page 253: 43. Davis, L.C. and Allison, J.E. :
  • Page 257 and 258: 127. Corbin, S.F., Lee, J. and Qiao
  • Page 259: 171. Gmelin, L. : Handbook of Inorg
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