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2 µm - eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

2 µm - eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

147. Eriksson, G. and

147. Eriksson, G. and Hack, K. : “Chemsage: A Computer-Program for the Calculation of Complex Chemical- Equilibria”, Metallurgical Transactions B, 21 (6), (1990), 1013-1023. 148. European Standard EN 1706, Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Castings. Chemical composition and mechanical properties, 1998. 149. Munz, D. and Fett, T. : Ceramics, Springer-Verlag, 1999. 150: FACTSAGE: Thermodynamic Software package, Version 5.2, GTT Technologies, Aachen -Germany. 151. Kingery, W.D., Bowen, H.K. and Uhlmann, D.R. : Introduction to Ceramics, Wiley Interscience Publication, 1976. 152. Gmelin, L. : Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft, 1976. 153. Micrometrics Corporation Georgia-USA: Operators Manual ASAP 2010, 1997. 154. DMC 2 , Data sheet 90263, Cerdec AG, Germany, 2001. 155. Staudenecker, D. : Entwicklung von porösen Keramik-Preforms und Herstellung von Metall-Keramik- Verbundwerkstoffen, Diploma Thesis FH Aalen- Germany, 2001. 156. SGL Carbon group, online data sheet: SIGRAFIL C – milled or pelletized carbon fiber, www.sglcarbon.com, 12.04.2006. 157. J.Rettenmaier & Söhne GmbH+Co.KG, online data sheet: Arbocell P290, www.jrs.de. 13.04.2006. 158. Nagel, A., Staudenecker, D., Huchler, B., Mattern, A., Neubrand, A. and Ulrich, O.: Final report of the research project “Interpenetrierte Metall-Keramik-Verbundwerkstoffe (Preform-MMC) für thermisch und tribologisch hochbeanspruchte Leichtbauteile”, Hochschule Aalen - Germany, 2006. 159. German Standard DIN 51918: Bestimmung der Rohdichte nach der Auftriebsmethode und der offenen Porosität durch Imprägnieren mit Wasser, November 1986. 160. Lide, D.R. : CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th Edition, CRC Press, 1995. 161. German Standard DIN-ENV 658: Mechanische Eigenschaften von keramischen Verbundwerkstoffen bei Raumtemperatur, May 1993. 162. Sambrook, R. : US Patent: 20040094284, Dytech Corporation LTD; Bicontinious composites, 2004. 163. Schneele, T. : Gefügedesign zur Zähigkeitssteigerung von Metall-Matrix-Verbundwerkstoffen, Diploma thesis FH Aalen- Germany, 2001. 164. Nagel, A., Staudenecker, D., Huchler, B., Schneider, G., Pfeifer-Schäller, I., and Klein, F. : “Preform- Verstärkung von Druckgussteilen”, Proceedings of VDG Giessereisymposium-FH Aalen-Germany, 2003, 71-77. 165. Bernthaler, T., Nagel, A., Huchler, B., Barth, T., Schneider, G. and Smolej, V. : “Quantitative Gefügeanalyse und Eigenschaftskorrelation an Metall-Keramik-Verbundwerkstoffen”, Proceedings of DGM Metallographie-Tagung 2004, Düsseldorf –Germany , 44-60. 166. American Standard ASTM-E 1876-99, Standard Test Method for Dynamic Young´s Modulus by Impulse Excitation of Vibration, 1999. 167. European Standard EN 843-1, Monolithic Ceramics: Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature. Part 1: Bending test, 1997. 168. European Standard EN 843-5, Monolithic Ceramics: Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature. Part 5: Statistics, 1997. 169. Kübler, J.J. : Fracture Resistance Testing of Monolithic and Composite Brittle Materials, ASTM STP 1409, (Editors.: J.A. Salem, G.D. Quinn, M.G. Jenkins), American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2002, 93-106 170. Optimol Triboligical Testing, Manual SRV II testint system, 2000. 247

171. Gmelin, L. : Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry, Online Version of MDL Information Systems GmbH, 2005. Gmelin Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Grenzgebiete der Max-Planck- Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Wissenschaften, Version 4 - June 2005. 172. Quested, P.N., Dinsdale, A.T., Robinson, J, Mills, K.C. and Hunt, J.D.: “The Prediction of the Thermophysical Properties and the Solidification Path of Commercial Alloys”, preliminary version handed over to Richard Harding – University of Birmingham - to be published, 1-38. 173. Irmscher, S.: Dispersability of carbon fibres in a ceramic slurry, Student research project report, University of Applied Sciences Aalen, Germany, 2005. 174. Schumann, H. : Metallographie, Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig, 1991. 175. Neubrand, A.: “Metall-Keramik-Verbundwerkstoffe für die Automobilindustrie”, Konstruktion, 9, (2006), 10-11. 176. Chan, K.S., Jones, P. and Wang, Q.: “Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture Paths in Sand Cast B319 and A356 Aluminium Alloys”, Materials Science and Engineering A, 341 (1-2), (2003), 18-34. 177. Ogrisa, E., Wahlen, A., Lüchinger, H. and Uggowitzer, P.J.: “On the Silicon Spheroidization in Al–Si Alloys”, Journal of Light Metals, 2 (4), (2002), 263-269. 178. Ogrisa, E., Wahlen, A., Lüchinger, H. and Uggowitzer, P.J.: “On the Silicon Spheroidization in Al–Si Alloys“, Journal of Light Metals, 2 (4), (2002), 263-269. 179. Kounga Njiwaa, A.B., Fett, T., Lupascua, D.C. and Rödel, J.: “Effect of Geometry and Electrical Boundary Conditions on R-curves for LZT ceramics”, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 73 (3) (2006), 309-317. 180. Kuang, J.P., Harding, R.A. and Campbell, J. : “Investigations into Refractories as Crucible and Mould Materials for Melting and Casting of Gamma-Ti-Al alloys”, Materials Science and Technology, 16 (11- 12), (2000), 1007-1016. 181. Choudhary, V.R.; Pandit, M.Y.: "Surface Properties of Magnesium Oxide obtained from Magnesium Hydroxide: Influence on Preparation and Calcination Conditions of Magnesium Hydroxide”, Applied Catalyst 71 (2), (1991), 266-274. 182. Wagner, G.W., Bartram, P.W., Koper, O. and Klabunde, K.J.: “Reactions of VX, GD, and HD with nanosize MgO”, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 103 (16), (1999), 3225-3228. 183. Capart, R., Khezamia, L. and Burnhamb, A.K.: “Assessment of Various Kinetic Models for the Pyrolysis of a Microgranular Cellulose” , Thermochimica Acta, 417 (1), (2004), 79–89. 184. Gulkova, D., Solcova, O. and Sradzil, M.: “Preparation of MgO Catalytic Support in Shaped Mesoporous High Surface Area Form”, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 76 (1-3);. 2004, 137-149. 185. Dam, J.C.: Field-scale water flow and solute transport, Doctoral Thesis Wageningen University - The Netherlands, http://library.wur.nl/wda/dissertations/dis2836.pdf, 2000. 186. Pokora, E.: “Preform 1D: Modelling of variably saturated flow in particulate preforms"; Introdution to the finite difference code - Preform 1D”, ARGE Metallguss, Aalen-Germany, 2005. 187. Niu, J.P., Sun, F.X., Jin, T., Yong, K.N., Guan, H.R. and Hu, Z.Q.: “Investigation into Deoxidation during Vacuum Induction Melting of Nickel Base Alloys using CaO crucibles”, Materials Science and Technology, 19, (2003), 435-439. 188. Sander, G.C., Parlange, J.Y., Kühnel, V., Hogarth, W.L., Lockington, D. and O'Kane, J.P.J.: “Exact Nonlinear Solution for Constant Flux Infiltration”, Journal of Hydrology, 97 (3-4), (1988), 341-346. 248

  • Page 1 and 2:

    Pressure Infiltration Behaviour and

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    ABSTRACT In the pressure infiltrati

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    CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. LITER

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    4.8.3 Evaluation of infiltration be

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    Symbol Meaning γRv surface energy

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    Symbol Meaning TYS tensile yield st

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    these materials are the detrimental

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    2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Materials

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    changes in the oxide film chemistry

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    or inside the bulk fluid only. Inte

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    that are most effective in decreasi

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    initiation stress of 25 %. Further,

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    Beffort (36) suggested that even th

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    einforcement interface and reinforc

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    It is interesting to note that, for

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    20 Table 2.1 Compilation of the mec

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    General models to predict fracture

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    with values observed by others for

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    The work of adhesion characterises

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    and vapour, is difficult to evaluat

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    system Al-Al2O3 is 10 -49 Pa at 700

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    In the Al-Cu system, although the p

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    The heat of reaction ΔGr may be es

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    al. (100) who found non-wetting beh

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    capillary or threshold pressure has

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    using constant gas pressure. Infilt

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    The superficial velocity v0 in the

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    The permeability K can be expressed

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    2.4. Preform fabrication Composites

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    According to Kniewallner (51) even

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    2.4.3. Foamed preforms Another inte

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    structure. This is shown schematica

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    2.5.1. Gas pressure infiltration (G

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    MMCs infiltrated with an Al-9Mg or

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    layer oxide films. The Weber number

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    Long et al. (50) suggested that v0

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    3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The influ

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    sintered at 1550°C, which represen

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    using a AVT-Horn (Aalen, Germany) m

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    squares fit function within the MAP

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    areas, SsBET ,of the powders were m

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    with dimensions of 65 mm x 46 mm x

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    The preform sintering process was o

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    in the evaporation of mercury at lo

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    The compressive strength, σc , of

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    as the measured mean value 0.23. Th

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    for 90 s to ensure complete solidif

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    ottom punch surface. The temperatur

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    A graphic presentation of the relat

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    detected. This operation took appro

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    modulus Edyn of the unreinforced al

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    calculated using the methods outlin

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    Positive volume changes were predic

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    Figure 4.5 Droplet formation of the

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    with the metal alloy IM: examples a

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    As shown in Figure 4.9, apart from

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    4.3.2 Powder specific surface area

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    The particles of TO and MO were dis

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    oom temperature and 270°C, with a

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    obtain usable products when they we

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    strengths, whereas with 10 and 20 w

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    strength showed no significant diff

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    Relative change in dimension s x, s

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    (a) AOPC20 (b) AGPC15 2 µm (c) TOP

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    At higher magnification, Figure 4.2

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    intrusions started at 4 µm and end

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    As shown in Figure 4.27, the pore s

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    An overview of the specific values

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    1.71 to 1.98·10 6 m²/m³. The sim

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    logarithmic compression behaviour,

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    The volumetric stiffness Eiso of th

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    Figure 4.37 shows that the TOPC20 p

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    unhindered through the gap between

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    intrusions and the other areas were

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    4.8.1 Unreinforced matrix propertie

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    die, Tmelt,die , could not be recor

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    pressure was recorded as a function

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    the linear fits for AOPC20, TOPC20

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    4.8.6 Non destructive testing of MM

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    X-Y Y-Z Figure 4.51 Virtual cross-s

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    The metal filling the intragranular

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    the ceramic particles was not visib

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    etween the dark grey ceramic phases

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    The windows, one of which is marked

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    potential interfacial reactions, th

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    In order to determine the effect of

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    Infiltration depth L² L² (mm²) /

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    4.8.12 Microstructure of MMCs with

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    minor fraction of suboxides with hi

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    4.9. High pressure die casting infi

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    In the Y-Z plane section in Figure

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    4.9.2 Compression of preforms The c

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    Relative preform compression c pr (

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    decrease depended on the tooling us

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    Bending stress σ (MPa) / MPa 500 4

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    4.10.3 Influence of reinforcement t

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    Significant deformation developed i

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    a) b) 2 50 2 50 µm µm 2 50 2 50

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    5. DISCUSSION First the properties

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    The measured elastic modulus, Edyn

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    The MMCs showed similar wear with t

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    interfacial debonding: Peng et al.

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    The area Sml was derived using data

  • Page 207 and 208: MMC. Due to the solidification shri
  • Page 209 and 210: measurements which resulted in a lo
  • Page 211 and 212: 5.1.5 Influence of reactions No rea
  • Page 213 and 214: 5.2. Preform pore formation The tar
  • Page 215 and 216: kinetics were reported to be rather
  • Page 217 and 218: The newly formed water vapour led t
  • Page 219 and 220: In order to achieve minimum porosit
  • Page 221 and 222: the present work. These pressures w
  • Page 223 and 224: indicated by zero values of the fre
  • Page 225 and 226: influence on the pO2,calc. The lowe
  • Page 227 and 228: during extended holding and acts as
  • Page 229 and 230: Compared to Hg, the Al melt may con
  • Page 231 and 232: preforms with IM, Figure 4.67. For
  • Page 233 and 234: preform compression, cpr , increase
  • Page 235 and 236: Specific Specific permeability Perm
  • Page 237 and 238: Permeability (m²) / m² 1x10 -12 1
  • Page 239 and 240: As the predominant fluid flow was a
  • Page 241 and 242: In the CP mode, the Preform 1D code
  • Page 243 and 244: Local Saturation saturation S () lo
  • Page 245 and 246: listed in Table 5.1 and 5.3 were us
  • Page 247 and 248: 6. CONCLUSIONS 1. An aqueous proces
  • Page 249 and 250: anged between 112 and 131° for the
  • Page 251 and 252: 8. REFERENCES 1. Altenpohl, D.: Alu
  • Page 253 and 254: 43. Davis, L.C. and Allison, J.E. :
  • Page 255 and 256: 85. Gennes, P.G. : “Wetting: Stat
  • Page 257: 127. Corbin, S.F., Lee, J. and Qiao
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