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Blacksburg, Virginia - Virginia Tech

Blacksburg, Virginia - Virginia Tech

References Barnes, R.

References Barnes, R. F., C. J. Nelson, M. Collins, and K. J. More. 2003. Forages Volume 1: An introduction to grassland agriculture (6th Edition). Iowa State University Press, IA. Davison, J., and C. McKnight. 2004. Teff demonstration plantings results for 2003. Coop. Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV. Ext. Publ. No. FS 04-51. Davison, J., and M. Peraldo. 2005. Teff demonstration planting results for 2004. Coop. Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV. Ext. Publ. No. FS 05-28. Davison, J. 2006. Teff demonstration planting results for 2005. Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV. Coop. Ext. Publ. No. FS 06-58. Gressel, Jonathan. 2008. Genetic Glass Ceilings. Johns Hopkins UP, Baltimore, MD. Hunter, M., P. Barney, and T. Kilcer. 2008. Teff as Emergency Forage. Cornell University Agronomy Fact Sheets 24 (2007): 1-2. Ketema, Seyfu. 1997. Teff. Eragrostis teff (Zucc.) Trotter. Diss. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research. Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. Moser, L.E., D. R. Buxton and M.D.Casler. 1996. Cool-season forage grasses. Agronomy: A series of monographs #34. ASA, CSSA and SSSA, Inc. Madison, WI. Roseberg, R. J., Norberg, S., Smith, J., Charlton, B., Rykbost, K., and Shock, C. 2005. Yield and quality of teff forage as a function of varying rates of applied irrigation and nitrogen. Research in the Klamath Basin 2005 Annual Report. Agric. Exp. Stn. Spec. Rep. 1069:119-136. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR. 3

CHAPTER II Literature Review One of the greatest expenses for cattle producers is conserved forage. Farm profitability is highly impacted by low feed costs and avoiding the risk of feed scarcity in mid summer. This is particularly true when growers minimize their cost by relying on predominantly cool-season grass pasture and expose themselves to the risk of fluctuating forage yields in the mid summer months. Use of drought tolerant warm-season annual forages is one simple way to diversify forage systems to help reduce risk associated with high temperature and drought during the summer months. Producers have limited choices of warm-season annual species to plant and many can be toxic under certain environmental conditions. Other, non-toxic, warm-season annual species are available, but their management and suitability for both livestock and hay production can be challenging. A new forage species to the mid-Atlantic that could provide relief during these slumps is teff ((Erogrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter), a summer-annual grass from Ethiopia. Origin and Adaptation Teff, which means “lost” in Amharic (Ethiopia), is an annual, C4, warm-season grass. Teff‟s roots in history can be traced back to 3359 BC (Mengesha, 1965) and is commonly grown as a grain crop in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, teff grain provides two-thirds of the human nutrition (Gressel, 2008). It is an intermediate between a tropical and temperate grass (Hunter et. al, 2008; Stallknect et al. 1993). It has several advantages that make it a viable alternative over other summer annual forages, including its ability to thrive both in moisture-stressed and waterlogged soils (Seyfu, 1997; Roseberg et al., 2005). Although it can grow in a wide variety of soil moisture conditions, teff is gaining popularity due to its tolerance of drought conditions. In 4

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