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Blacksburg, Virginia - Virginia Tech

Blacksburg, Virginia - Virginia Tech

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank all who aided in the success of this project. Below are only a few names out of the many that have helped to make it happen. Thank you. Dr. A. Ozzie Abaye Dr. Chris D. Teutsch Dr. Benjamin F. Tracy Dr. Rory O. Maguire Dr. Mark A. McCann Christie Newman Mac Tilson David Fiske and the crew at McCormick Farm Jon Wooge and the crew at Kentland Farm Agronomy Farm Crew The Teff Company Target Seed Company USDA Grass-fed Beef Initiative iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………………………………i ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………ii DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………...……….iii AKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………..…………………iv TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………………v LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………….vii LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………..viii APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………………………..x CHAPTER I: Introduction............................................................................................................ 1 References ................................................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER II: Literature Review .................................................................................................. 4 Origin and Adaptation................................................................................................................. 4 Plant Characteristics.................................................................................................................... 5 Teff as Forage ............................................................................................................................. 6 Management ................................................................................................................................ 6 Planting and Establishment ..................................................................................................... 6 Fertility .................................................................................................................................... 9 Pest Control ........................................................................................................................... 10 Harvesting ............................................................................................................................. 11 Grazing Teff .......................................................................................................................... 11 Productivity and Nutritive Value .............................................................................................. 13 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 14 Summary and Conclusion ..................................................................................................... 14 References ................................................................................................................................. 16 CHAPTER III: Effect of Nitrogen Rate and Source on Biomass Yield of Teff Grown for Livestock Feed in the Mid-Atlantic Region.................................................................................. 19 Abstract ..................................................................................................................................... 19 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 20 Methods and Materials .............................................................................................................. 22 Forage Assessment.................................................................................................................... 24 Results and Discussions ............................................................................................................ 26 Environmental Conditions .................................................................................................... 26 Blacksburg ........................................................................................................................ 26 Southern Piedmont ............................................................................................................ 27 Shenandoah Valley ........................................................................................................... 27 Biomass Yields ..................................................................................................................... 31 Blacksburg ........................................................................................................................ 31 Southern Piedmont ............................................................................................................ 35 Shenandoah Valley ........................................................................................................... 38 Forage Nutritive Value ......................................................................................................... 41 Crude Protein .................................................................................................................... 41 v

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