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Blacksburg, Virginia - Virginia Tech

Blacksburg, Virginia - Virginia Tech

levels; therefore all

levels; therefore all samples from that harvest were tested. In 2010, samples from several locations showed nitrate at high toxic levels, therefore all locations and harvests were tested. Table 3-9. Potential toxicity of forages containing varying concentrations of nitrate. Nitrate in Forage Rating Comments mg kg -1 NO3 - 0 – 2,500 SAFE 2,500 – 5,000 GENERALLY SAFE 5,000 – 15,000 DANGER Kentland Nitrogen rate x N source interaction was significant for 2009 and 2010, therefore interaction means will be presented (Figure 3-11; 12; 13). Samples obtained from the first harvests in 2009 and 2010 showed nitrate levels above 5,000 mg kg -1 NO3 -1 (Table 3- 8 and Figure 3-11, Figure 3-12). Ammonium nitrate, at application rates higher than 45 kg N ha -1 from the first harvests showed nitrate accumulation at levels of both dangerous and toxic for livestock (Table 3-8 and Figure 3-11; 12). Broiler litter, at any rate, showed no dangerous or toxic levels of nitrate accumulation in teff in 2009 or 2010 (Figure 3-11; 51 Considered safe in most circumstances. Safe when fed with balanced ration. Limit to ½ of ration for pregnant animals. Check water for nitrates. Limit to ¼ of ration. Feed with a well balanced ration. May encounter production losses and reproductive problems. 15,000 + TOXIC Do not feed free choice. Feed only in a total mixed ration with high nitrate feed composing less than 15% of total ration. Adapted from Southern Forages Third Edition

12; 13). In 2009, ammonium nitrate showed a quadratic response where as broiler responded linearly (Figure 3-11). In 2010, nitrate levels for broiler litter showed no response to N rate and therefore means were plotted (Figure 3-12; 13). Harvest two for all rates and sources showed nitrate levels in the generally safe or below ranges. kg -1 ) Nitrates (mg NO 3 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Broiler Litter Ammonium Nitrate y = 1002.60 + 101.30x + 0.40x 2 r 2 = 0.7980 p < 0.0001 y = 220.77 + 22.92x r 2 = 0.3142 p = 0.0239 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 N Rate (kg N ha -1 ) Figure 3-11. The effect of N rates and sources on nitrate accumulation for harvest 1 at Kentland, 2009. 52

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