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Review of Maritime Transport 2011 - Unctad

Review of Maritime Transport 2011 - Unctad


PORT AND MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENTS CHAPTER 4 World container port throughput increased by an estimated 13.3 per cent to 531.4 million TEUs in 2010 after stumbling briefly in 2009. Chinese mainland ports continued to increase their share of total world container port throughput to 24.2 per cent. The UNCTAD Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (LSCI) reveals that China continues its lead as the single most connected country, followed by Hong Kong SAR, Singapore and Germany. In 2011, 91 countries increased their LSCI ranking over 2010, 6 saw no change, and 65 recorded a decrease. In 2010, the rail freight sector grew by 7.2 per cent to reach 9,843 billion freight ton kilometres (FTKs). The road freight sector grew by 7.8 per cent in 2010 over the previous year with volumes reaching 9,721 billion FTKs. This chapter covers some of the major port development projects under way in developing countries, container throughput, liner shipping connectivity, improvements in port performance, and inland transportation and infrastructure development in the areas of road, rail, and inland waterways, with a special focus on public-private partnerships (PPPs) in financing inland transport infrastructure development and rail transport.

86 A. PORT DEVELOPMENTS 1. Container port throughput For modern production processes, components of goods are often produced as semi-manufactured goods, re-exported in containers and assembled into final products. These final products may also be exported in a container. Containerized goods are suitable for transhipment, which means more container handling for ports. The growth in semi-manufactured goods and the use of transhipment has thus helped container throughput to thrive in recent decades. In 1990, world container port throughput volumes were around 85 million TEUs, and they have since grown sixfold to 531.4 million TEUs over 20 years. As can been seen from chapter two, the world fleet of container ships also grew by a similar magnitude. In 2010, container port throughput resumed its long climb after a brief stumble in 2009 as a result of the global economic crisis. Table 4.1 shows the latest figures available on world container port traffic for 76 developing countries and economies in transition with an annual national throughput of over 100,000 TEUs. (An extended list of port throughput for countries can be found in annex V). In 2009, the container throughput rate of change for developing economies was an estimated minus 7 per cent, with a throughput of 325.2 million TEUs. Their share of world throughput remained virtually unchanged at approximately 69 per cent. Out of the 76 developing economies listed in table 4.1, only 23 experienced a positive growth in port throughput in 2009. The 10 countries registering the highest growth were Ecuador (49.2 per cent), Djibouti (45.7 per cent), Namibia (44.7 per cent), Morocco (32.9 per cent), Jordan (15.8 per cent), Lebanon (15.4 per cent), the Syrian Arab Republic (12.2 per cent), Dominican Republic (11 per cent), the Islamic Republic of Iran (10.3 per cent) and Sudan (10.3 per cent). The country with the largest share of container throughput is China, with nine ports in the top 20. Chinese ports, excluding Hong Kong SAR, experienced a negative growth of 6.58 per cent in 2009 to reach 107.5 million TEUs. Preliminary figures for 2010 showed a rebound for Chinese port throughput of around 19.6 per cent, to 128.5 million TEUs. Despite the fall in overall volumes, Chinese ports, with the exception of Hong Kong SAR, accounted for around 24.2 per cent of world container throughput, up from 22.9 per cent in 2009. The share REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 2011 of Chinese ports of world container throughput has risen steadily in recent years from around 1.5 per cent in 1990 to 9.0 per cent in 2000 and 22.5 per cent in 2008. In 2010, the port of Shanghai for the first time took the title of the world’s busiest container port from Singapore, with a throughput of 29.2 million TEUs. This represented a growth rate of over 16 per cent, compared with 2009 and was higher than Singapore’s performance of 9.72 per cent. The port of Shanghai previously overtook Singapore to become the world’s largest port in 2005 in terms of volume handled by all modes of transport. Singapore has faced growing competition in recent years from its neighbours in the form of existing and new potential port projects, for example, Batam Island (Indonesia), Port Tanjung Pelepas (Malaysia), Thailand (Pak Bara) and Cai Mep (Viet Nam). Table 4.2 shows the world’s 20 leading container ports for 2008–2010. This list includes 14 ports from developing economies, all of which are in Asia; the remaining 6 ports are from developed countries, 3 of which are located in Europe and 3 in North America. In 2010, one Asian port (Laem Chabang, Thailand) fell out of the top 20 and another port from North America (New York/New Jersey) joined the group. This is unusual, given the decline of North American ports in terms of their share of world container throughput. One explanation may be that trade across the Atlantic was less affected by the global economic crisis than trade across the Pacific. Table 4.2 also shows that Ningbo (up two places) and Qingdao (up one place) made gains in their ranking by increasing container throughput 25 and 17 per cent, respectively. Guangzhou (down one place) and Dubai (down two places) slipped in the ranking despite growing 17 and 14 per cent, respectively. The top 20 container ports combined accounted for approximately 47.9 per cent of world container throughput in 2010, which is up from 47. 1 per cent in 2009 but down from the figure of 48.1 per cent reached in 2008 before the global financial crisis. Combined, these ports showed a 10.7 per cent decrease in throughput in 2009 and a 15.2 per cent increase in 2010. While this is good news for world trade, a closer examination of the numbers reveal that most of the gains reported in 2010 occurred during the first three quarters of the year, weakening significantly in the fourth quarter. In 2009, the top 20 container ports recorded negative growth, except the ports of Guangzhou (China), Tanjung Pelepas (Malaysia) and Tianjin (China).

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