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Review of Maritime Transport 2011 - Unctad

Review of Maritime Transport 2011 - Unctad

CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING

CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’ PARTICIPATION IN MARITIME BUSINESSES 149 TABLE 6.4. Brazilian-owned fleet, 1 January 2011 Total Percentage of total Brazil Panama Liberia Bahamas Marshall Islands Others Total number of ships 152 70.4 5.3 16.5 1.3 0.0 6.6 Total dwt 10 866 503 19.9 11.7 56.9 3.3 3.1 8.1 Bulk carriers, dwt 4 690 527 8.8 2.9 81.2 0.0 0.0 7.1 Cargo/passenger ships, dwt 270 289 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Offshore, dwt 1 428 141 7.4 59.8 0.0 18.1 4.3 14.8 Tankers, dwt 4 466 352 30.6 6.3 53.2 2.4 6.3 7.6 Miscellaneous, dwt 11 194 59.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 40.3 Source: Compiled by the UNCTAD secretariat on the basis of data provided by IHS Fairplay. vessels sail under the Brazilian flag. However, based on tonnage, Liberia is the most used flag for the Brazilian-owned fleet, with a share of 57 per cent. Next are the Brazilian flag (20 per cent) and the Panamanian flag (12 per cent). Large vessels such as bulk carriers and tankers are involved in international transport and are mostly listed at Liberia’s registry, while offshore platforms and general cargo and passenger vessels often need to be registered in Brazil. Cabotage, for instance, can only be carried out by Brazilianflagged vessels. 3. Ship operation In container shipping especially, the companies that provide liner shipping services tend to own only a part of their fleet. The liner shipping companies charter in additional ships, which are then operated and deployed under their own name. A total of 405 containership operators are reported to provide international liner shipping services. The three countries with the highest containership operating capacity (in terms of total TEU vessel capacity) are Denmark, Switzerland and France, which jointly have a market share of almost 30 per cent. 10 It is also noteworthy that the largest shipowning country, Greece, is not host to any major containership operators. 11 Among the top 20 operating countries are 10 developing economies, which have a combined share of 37 per cent. After the selling in the 1990s of major United States liner shipping companies, it is Chilean companies which today operate the largest containership fleet in the Western Hemisphere (tables 2.6 and 6.5). Country case study: Chilean containership operators Chile is home to three international containership operators, which in January 2011 had a combined capacity of 449,913 TEU. Compañía Sudamericana de Vapores (CSAV) dominates the sector in Chile, with an 85 per cent share among the Chilean carriers and a ranking of tenth in the world (table 2.6). The other Chilean carriers are Compañía Chilena de Navegación Interoceánica, and Nisa Navegación (table 6.6). As illustrated in figure 6.3, CSAV’s growth has outpaced the world market for containerized cargo in recent decades. From 1981 to 2009, global transport of containerized cargo increased approximately 3.3 times faster than the world’s GDP, while the cargo carried by CSAV grew almost 11 times faster during the same period. In 2009, during the economic crisis, the company lost market share. This was the year with the highest net loss in the company’s history (-$633 million). CSAV was able to generate a positive net income in 2010 ($171 million), but in early 2011 it was again reporting losses. The Lucksic family is now a major shareholder and they are trying to accomplish a sustainable turnaround. Founded in 1872, CSAV is one of the oldest shipping companies in the world. Initially, the company’s business consisted of national coastal shipping services; these were then extended along the whole west coast of South America as far as the Panama Canal. Today, CSAV, through its subsidiary Sudamericana Agencias Aéreas y Marítimas (SAAM), also has interests in terminal operations, stevedoring, tugboats, agency and other logistics-related services in 11 countries in North, Central and South America. On the shipping side, the CSAV group includes liner companies in Brazil and Uruguay, as well as interests in dry bulk and reefer shipping.

150 Table 6.5. The 20 largest containership-operating economies, January 2011 Country Total fleet Vessel capacity TEU Vessel capacity, percentage of world capacity REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 2011 Accumulated market share, percentage of world capacity Number of ships, 2010 Denmark 1 891 051 11.6% 11.6% 485 Switzerland 1 771 621 10.9% 22.5% 439 France 1 190 894 7.3% 29.9% 383 China 1 141 708 7.0% 36.9% 398 Singapore 1 117 000 6.9% 43.8% 492 Taiwan Province of China 1 113 598 6.9% 50.6% 337 Japan 1 085 802 6.7% 57.3% 296 Germany 1 025 650 6.3% 63.6% 412 Republic of Korea 906 259 5.6% 69.2% 336 China, Hong Kong SAR 661 531 4.1% 73.2% 190 Chile 449 913 2.8% 76.0% 149 United States 318 297 2.0% 78.0% 337 Israel 281 532 1.7% 79.7% 73 Kuwait 178 599 1.1% 80.8% 47 Belgium 137 090 0.8% 81.6% 163 Netherlands 132 483 0.8% 82.5% 191 Iran, Islamic Republic of 90 288 0.6% 83.0% 42 Malaysia 85 967 0.5% 83.5% 74 Italy 80 080 0.5% 84.0% 95 United Arab Emirates 69 896 0.4% 84.5% 47 World 16 253 988 100% 100.0% 9 688 Source: Compiled by the UNCTAD secretariat on the basis of data from Containerisation International Online (accessed in March 2011). Table 6.6. Chilean ship operators Company Total fleet Order book in 2010 2010 Ranking position 2009 Ranking position Source: Compiled by the UNCTAD secretariat on the basis of data from Containerisation International Online (accessed in March 2011). 2010 TEU Share of TEU, as a % of Chilean TEU 2010 Number of ships TEU Ships Compañia Sud Americana de Vapores SA 10 10 382 786 85.1 119 6 316 1 Compañía Chilena de Navegación Interoceánica S.A. 28 29 65 530 14.6 27 0 0 Nisa Navegacíon S.A. 230 311 1 597 0.4 3 0 0 Total Chile 449 913 149 6 316 1

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