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Review of Maritime Transport 2011 - Unctad

Review of Maritime Transport 2011 - Unctad

CONTENTS

CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Review of Maritime Transport 2011 was prepared by the Trade Logistics Branch of the Division on Technology and Logistics, UNCTAD, under the coordination of Jan Hoffmann, the supervision of José María Rubiato, and the overall guidance of Anne Miroux. The authors were Regina Asariotis, Hassiba Benamara, Hannes Finkenbrink, Jan Hoffmann, Jennifer Lavelle, Maria Misovicova, Vincent Valentine and Frida Youssef. Administrative support and the desktop publishing were undertaken by Florence Hudry. Additional desktop publishing was carried out by Wendy Juan. Graphic support was provided by Philippe Terrigeol, and the publication was edited by Daniel Sanderson, Mike Gibson and Lucy Délèze-Black. This publication was externally reviewed by the following persons: Chapter 1: Socrates Leptos-Bourgi, Michael Tamvakis, Liliana Annovazzi-Jakab, Melissa Dawn Newhook. Chapter 2: Daniel S.H. Moon, Thomas Pawlik, Tengfei Wang. Chapter 3: Herman de Meester, Aleksandra Pieczek. Chapter 4: Sharmila Chavaly, Patrick Donner, Ki-Soon Hwang, Peter Marlow, Arvind Mayaram. Chapter 5: Mahin Faghfouri, Mia Mikic, André Stochniol. Chapter 6: Tilmann Boehme, Kevin Cullinane, Peter Faust, Maximilian Mrotzek, Hong-Oanh (Owen) Nguyen. Annexes: Desislava Oblakova. In addition, the publication was internally reviewed in full by Vladislav Chouvalov. iii

iv CONTENTS REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 2011 Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................................... iii List of tables, figures and boxes................................................................................................................... v Abbreviations and explanatory notes ........................................................................................................... ix Vessel groupings used in the Review of Maritime Transport ......................................................................... xiv Executive summary ..................................................................................................................................... xv Chapter Page 1 Developments in international seaborne trade.................................................................................... 1 A. World economic situation and prospects................................................................................... 2 B. World seaborne trade................................................................................................................ 7 C. Select emerging trends affecting international shipping ............................................................. 25 2. Structure, ownership and registration of the world fleet.................................................................... 35 A. Structure of the world fleet ........................................................................................................ 36 B. Ownership and operation of the world fleet ............................................................................... 41 C. Registration of ships.................................................................................................................. 46 D. Shipbuilding, demolition and outlook on vessel supply .............................................................. 51 3. Price of vessels and freight rates ........................................................................................................ 63 A. Overview of the determinants of maritime transport costs and impact on trade ........................ 64 B. The price of vessels................................................................................................................... 64 C. Freight rates .............................................................................................................................. 65 4. Port and multimodal transport developments .................................................................................... 85 A. Port developments ................................................................................................................... 86 B. Inland transport developments ................................................................................................. 94 C. Surface transport infrastructure development in developing countries........................................ 98 5. Legal issues and regulatory developments .........................................................................................109 A. Important developments in transport law .................................................................................. 110 B. Regulatory developments relating to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from Page international shipping ............................................................................................................... 113 C. Other legal and regulatory developments affecting transportation .............................................. 119 D. Trade facilitation in international agreements.............................................................................. 128 E. Status of conventions ............................................................................................................... 133 6. Developing countries’ participation in Maritime Businesses ............................................................. 143 A. Maritime business in developing countries................................................................................. 144 B. Analysis of selected maritime businesses .................................................................................. 146 C. Comparative analysis of maritime businesses ....................................................................... .. 163

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  • Page 52 and 53: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND REGISTRATI
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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND

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    64 A. OVERVIEW OF THE DETERMINANTS

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    66 liner operators to adopt measure

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    68 Figure 3.1. Tanker freight marke

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    70 VLCCs. Average Suezmax freight r

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    72 have an effect on destabilizing

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    74 points and ended the year at 1,7

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    76 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 201

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    78 Table 3.6. Container ship time c

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    80 Figure 3.6. Container prices (20

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    82 Figure 3.8. Tons carried per dea

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    84 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 201

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    86 A. PORT DEVELOPMENTS 1. Containe

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    88 Table 4.1. Container port traffi

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    90 so-called hub ports, basically a

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    92 In Costa Rica, APMT won a 33-yea

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    94 causing concern about the viabil

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    96 Box 4.1. The recent minerals boo

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    98 showing interest in the signific

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    100 projects and in a few large dev

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    102 4. Railways transport developme

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    104 Box 4.3. Private-sector partici

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    106 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 20

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    108 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 20

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    110 A. IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN TR

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    112 Exercise of the right of arrest

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    114 that international shipping emi

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    116 A report of the Working Group 4

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    118 By contrast, a number of other

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    120 the IMO Maritime Safety Committ

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    122 implementation of the SAFE Fram

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    124 Box 5.1. The International Ship

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    126 Memorandum of Understanding (Mo

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    128 (c) New certification requireme

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    130 national and regional developme

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    132 Figure 5.2. Overview of “WTO-

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    134 Source: For official status inf

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    136 19 Berlingieri on Arrest of Shi

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    138 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 20

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    140 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 20

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    DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’ PARTICIPATI

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’

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    172 a b c d Annex I. Classification

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    174 Annex I. Classification of coun

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    176 Annex II. World seaborne trade

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    178 Annex II. World seaborne trade

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    180 Total fleet Oil tankers REVIEW

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    182 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 20

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    184 Annex III. (b) Merchant fleets

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    186 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 20

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    188 Total fleet Oil tankers REVIEW

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    190 Total fleet Oil tankers REVIEW

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    192 REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 20

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    194 Annex IV. True nationality of t

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    196 Country or territory of ownersh

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    198 Country or territory of ownersh

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    200 Country or territory of ownersh

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    202 Annex V. Container port through

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    204 Annex VI. UNCTAD Liner Shipping

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    206 Annex VI. UNCTAD Liner Shipping

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    208 Annex VI. UNCTAD Liner Shipping

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    210 Annex VII. Countries’ market

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    212 Annex VII. Countries’ market

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