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BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

100 7 Annex Rape seed

100 7 Annex Rape seed oil methyl ester versus fossil diesel for transportation – Austria Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Nitrous oxide Human toxicity How to interpret the diagram Advantages for biofuel Advantages for fossil fuel -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 Austrian inhabitant equivalents per 100 million km The figure shows the results of complete life cycle comparisons where RME is used in passenger cars instead of diesel fuel. The results are given for a distance of 100 million km being covered by passenger cars using the biofuel instead of fossil fuel. This is equivalent to the average annual mileage of about 12,000 inhabitants of Austria. In this case for example the amount of greenhouse gas emissions that being saved by substituting diesel fuel by RME is equal to the amount which about 1,050 Austrian citizens would on average generate in one year (this is what is meant by "Austrian inhabitant equivalents"). Conclusions It is to be assumed that the production of rape seed for energy will be competing with fallow land at the time of economic realisation. In Austria rape seed can be cultivated nearly on the entire arable land (approx. 1.4 million ha), the production of energy crops on 100,000 ha seems to be appropriate. With this area 6 PJ fossil fuel and 0.3 Mt CO2 can be saved while eutrophication and summer smog decrease to a smaller extent (2.4 kt NO3 and 0,04 kt ethylen eq.). Acidification and nitrous oxide emission will increase (1 kt SO2 and 0.5 kt N2O). Rape seed used for the production of fuel shows advantages concerning the use of fossil energy and concerning greenhouse gas emissions. In the year 2010 an area of 7 % of the arable land might suffice to cover 2.6 % of the fuel demand (238 PJ in 1999). Rape seed can contribute 3.5 % to the demanded reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 9.4 million tons. The effects on eutrophication, summer smog and human toxicity are positive but minimal. Considerable disadvantages are observed in nitrous oxide-emissions and acidification. The absolute change in acidification with 951 tons seems to be rather insignificant. The burden imposed by nitrous oxide increases significantly with 504 t (5.6 % of the nitrous oxide-burden in the year 1999). 8071

7.1 Country specific life cycle comparisons 101 Traditional firewood versus light oil and natural gas for heat production – Austria Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Nitrous oxide Human toxicity How to interpret the diagram Advantages for biofuel -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 Austrian inhabitant equivalents per 100 TJ Advantages for fossil fuel Light oil Natural gas The figure shows the results of comparisons between complete life cycles where light oil or natural gas is substituted by traditional firewood for heat production. The unit refers to an amount of 100 TJ heat. This is equivalent to the average heat requirement of about 2,900 inhabitants in Austria in one year. In this case for example the amount of fossil fuel saved is equal to the amount which about 1,000 Austrian citizens would on average consume in one year (this is what is meant by „Austrian inhabitant equivalents“). Conclusions For an annual increment of approx. 31 million m 3 approx. 20 million m 3 wood are harvested in Austria; in addition, forest land is increasing. Firewood is apportioned 3 to 4 million m 3 corresponding to 1.2 to 1.6 million tons. Firewood shows major advantages concerning the use of fossil energy and greenhouse gas emissions as compared to light oil and natural gas. With 500,000 tons of wood (corresponding to an annual increment of 125,000 to 150,000 ha) 7 PJ fossil fuel and 0.5 Mt CO2 could be saved. As compared to acidification, eutrophication, summer smog and human toxicity only minor differences can be observed. The substitution of oil shows better results in greenhouse gases and in acidification, the substitution of gas yields positive results with regard to summer smog.

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