Views
5 years ago

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

114 7 Annex Biogas

114 7 Annex Biogas versus natural gas for energy production – Denmark Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Nitrous oxide** Humantoxicity** * How to interpret the diagram Advantages for biofuel Advantages for fossil fuel -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 Danish inhabitant equivalents* per 100 TJ The figure shows the results of comparisons between complete life cycles where natural gas is substituted by biogas for energy (heat and power) production. The unit refers to an amount of 100 TJ of energy. This is equivalent to the average energy requirement of about 4,700 inhabitants of Denmark in one year. Conclusion The results show that both biogas as well as natural gas have certain ecological advantages and disadvantages, depending on the parameters given highest priority. Biogas has significant environmental advantages over natural gas with regard to the parameters greenhouse effect and use of fossil fuels but on the other hand natural gas is superior with regard to acidification and eutrophication and summer smog. The parameter human toxicity shows a less significant result in favour of fossil fuel, but it should be noted that these data tend to have a high uncertainty, and should not be included in the final assessment. (**For more information on this and the other environmental parameters investigated see Chapters 3.3 and 3.4 as well as 4.1.2.) A further assessment in favour of or against biogas or natural gas cannot be carried out on a scientific basis, because for this purpose subjective value judgements regarding the individual environmental categories are required. Whether biogas is assessed as better or worse than natural gas depends upon the focus and priorities of the decision makers. If the main focus of the decision maker is for example on the reduction of the greenhouse effect and the saving of energy resources, biogas will be better suited. If on the other hand the parameters acidification and eutrophication are deemed to be most important, then natural gas would be preferred.

7.1 Country specific life cycle comparisons 115 Technical applications: heat production – Denmark Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Nitrous oxide** Human toxicity** * How to interpret the diagram Advantages for biofuel Advantages for fossil fuel Straw vs light oil Willow vs light oil Miscanthus vs light oil -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 Danish inhabitant equivalents* per 100 TJ The figure shows the results of complete life cycle comparisons where straw, willow and Miscanthus respectively are used for heat production instead of light oil. The results are given for an amount of 100 TJ. This is equivalent to the average heat requirement of 4,700 Danes. In this case for example the amount of greenhouse gas emissions that is being saved by substituting light oil by willow is equal to the amount which about 750 Danish citizens would on average generate in one year. (This is what is meant by “Danish inhabitant equivalents”). Conclusion Comparing the three investigated bioenergy carriers (in turn compared to their fossil counterparts) against each other, the following result emerges: Straw show the greatest advantages in all categories apart from summer smog and human toxicity. Willow has similar big advantages with regard to use of fossil fuels and greenhouse effect, and comes out second best regarding nitrous oxide, acidification and eutrophication. Miscanthus is the worst choice in all categories apart from summer smog, and is therefore not recommendable for heat production, if the categories here reflect the interest of the decisionmaker. However, whether straw or willow should be recommended depends on the subjective judgements and priorities of the individual decision maker with regard to the environmental categories under study, and other interests.

Bioenergy Update 10-02 - General*Bioenergy
Maximising the environmental benefits of Europe's bioenergy potential
Bioenergy Value Chain Research And Development Stakes ... - FARA
LCA of a biorefinery concept producing bioethanol, bioenergy - avniR
Desktop Management Tools — Which One Is the Best?
Choose The One That Best Fits Your Lifestyle! - Java Fundraiser
One Size Fits One: Best Practices for Building - Right Management
Hot vs. Cold Ionization Gauges: Which One is Best for Me?