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BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

2 Biofuels under Study

2 Biofuels under Study Within Europe, there is a large variety of biofuels with the potential to replace equivalent fossil fuels. In each of the eight participating countries, there are different types of biofuels for which the economical, technical and ecological conditions are suitable with regard to their production. Some crops can be grown in almost every country, others are being cultivated only in certain countries, due to climatic or cultural conditions. Thus for example wheat straw can be produced in all countries, while sunflowers cannot be cultivated very successfully in northern Europe and was therefore investigated by Greece, Italy and France but not by the other countries. In this chapter, the various production chains are introduced, providing information about: • which countries investigated which fuels, • which type of fossil fuel each biofuel was compared to and • which function the respective fuel is to fulfil (e. g. heat, electricity or transport) Finally it will be described how the individual comparisons were structured. Due to the limited scope of this report this will be done giving only an overview of the comparisons. For more detailed information on this subject see Annex 7.5. 2.1 Biofuels investigated by the participating countries Within Europe there is obviously a large variety of climatic and other environmental conditions, which leads to the necessity to investigate different sources of biofuels in different countries, as they all have their particular ecological requirements. Apart from the environmental conditions, other factors such as technical and economic feasibility were taken into account in the choice of biofuel sources for the various countries. Thus only those production lines were considered for which the technology already exists at least in the form of prototypes. Secondly, all those sources of biofuel were excluded for which there was interest in less than three countries. A deliberate exception to this was the inclusion of hemp as a novel production line, which was considered by the Netherlands only. This however was not included in the European assessment. The choice of biofuel production lines for each country was based on expert judgements within each respective country. Due to the lack of objective criteria by which to decide on the question of which biofuels to include in the assessment, the respective country representatives based their choices on professional knowledge as well as communication with national ministries for agriculture, energy and the environment or other institutions where relevant. Table 2-1 Biofuels investigated by each participating country Biofuel Austria Denmark France Germany Greece Italy Netherlands Switzerland Cultivated solid biofuels Triticale X X X X X Willow X X X X Miscanthus X X X X X Cultivated liquid biofuels Rape seed (RME) X X X X X X Sunflower (SME) X X X X Sugar beet (ETBE) X X X X Biofuels from residues Trad. firewood X X X X Wheat straw X X X X X X Biogas X X X X X X X Novel production line Hemp X EU

Bioenergy Update 10-02 - General*Bioenergy