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BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

II Contents 3.5

II Contents 3.5 Interpretation .....................................................................................................................43 3.5.1 General procedure.................................................................................................43 3.5.2 Interpretation concept: biofuels versus fossil fuels .................................................44 3.5.3 Interpretation concept: Biofuels versus Biofuels ....................................................44 4 Environmental results: presentation, discussion and interpretation ......................................47 4.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................47 4.1.1 Life cycles under study..........................................................................................47 4.1.2 Impacts under study and presentation criteria.........................................................47 4.1.3 Sensitivity analyses ...............................................................................................48 4.1.4 The criteria of result description ............................................................................51 4.2 European results: biofuels compared to fossil fuels ............................................................51 4.2.1 Triticale versus hard coal for electricity production................................................52 4.2.2 Willow versus light oil / natural gas for district heat production .............................53 4.2.3 Miscanthus versus light oil / natural gas for district heat production.......................54 4.2.4 RME versus diesel fuel for transportation ..............................................................55 4.2.5 SME versus diesel fuel for transportation...............................................................56 4.2.6 ETBE versus MTBE for transportation (components of gasoline) ..........................57 4.2.7 Traditional firewood versus light oil / natural gas for residential heat production ...58 4.2.8 Wheat straw versus light oil / natural gas for district heat production .....................59 4.2.9 Biogas versus natural gas for combined heat and power production .......................60 4.2.10 Results on biodiversity and soil quality..................................................................61 4.3 European results: biofuels for specific objectives ...............................................................63 4.3.1 Technical applications I: heat production...............................................................64 4.3.2 Technical applications II: transport........................................................................65 4.3.3 Ecological aspects I: land use efficiency ................................................................66 4.3.4 Ecological aspects II: impacts related to saved energy............................................67 4.4 Summary of country specific results...................................................................................68 4.4.1 Austria ..................................................................................................................69 4.4.2 Denmark ...............................................................................................................70 4.4.3 France ...................................................................................................................71 4.4.4 Germany ...............................................................................................................72 4.4.5 Greece...................................................................................................................73 4.4.6 Italy.......................................................................................................................74 4.4.7 The Netherlands ....................................................................................................75 4.4.8 Switzerland ...........................................................................................................76 4.5 Summary of comparisons between the countries for each biofuel .......................................77 5 Socio-economic and political analyses.......................................................................................79 5.1 Methodology and data generation ......................................................................................79 5.2 Socio-economic aspects .....................................................................................................80 5.2.1 Production costs ....................................................................................................80 5.2.2 Employment..........................................................................................................81 5.3 Visual impact of landscape changes ...................................................................................83 5.3.1 Variation in structure.............................................................................................83

Contents III 5.3.2 Variation in colour.................................................................................................83 5.4 Political factors..................................................................................................................84 5.4.1 Land availability....................................................................................................85 5.4.2 Environmental groups............................................................................................85 5.4.3 Fair competition ....................................................................................................86 5.4.4 Introduction of biofuels in agricultural practice......................................................86 5.4.5 CO2-reduction policies...........................................................................................87 6 Conclusions and recommendations...........................................................................................89 7 Annex.........................................................................................................................................97 7.1 Country specific life cycle comparisons .............................................................................97 7.1.1 Country specific results – Austria ..........................................................................98 7.1.2 Country specific results – Denmark ..................................................................... 108 7.1.3 Country specific results – France......................................................................... 118 7.1.4 Country specific results – Germany ..................................................................... 124 7.1.5 Country specific results – Greece......................................................................... 135 7.1.6 Country specific results – Italy ............................................................................ 141 7.1.7 Country specific results – The Netherlands.......................................................... 146 7.1.8 Country specific results – Switzerland ................................................................. 154 7.2 Comparisons between the countries for each biofuel ........................................................ 158 7.2.1 Introduction......................................................................................................... 158 7.2.2 Triticale versus hard coal for electricity production: relative impact differences related to fossil fuels............................................................................................ 159 7.2.3 Willow versus light oil for district heat production: relative impact differences related to fossil fuels............................................................................................ 160 7.2.4 Miscanthus versus light oil for district heat production: relative impact differences related to fossil fuels.......................................................................... 161 7.2.5 Rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) versus fossil diesel fuel for transportation: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels................................ 162 7.2.6 Sunflower oil methyl ester (SME) versus fossil diesel fuel for transportation: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels................................ 163 7.2.7 ETBE from sugar beet versus fossil MTBE for transportation: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels........................................................ 164 7.2.8 Traditional firewood versus light oil for residential heating: relative impact differences related to fossil fuels.......................................................................... 165 7.2.9 Wheat straw versus light oil for district heat production: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels........................................................ 166 7.2.10 Biogas from swine excrements versus natural gas for combined heat and power production: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels ............ 167 7.3 Abbreviations and symbols.............................................................................................. 168 7.4 List of authors and addresses............................................................................................ 169 7.5 Data availability............................................................................................................... 175 7.6 Literature......................................................................................................................... 176

  • Page 1 and 2: BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FI
  • Page 3: Contents Executive summary.........
  • Page 8 and 9: 2 Executive summary Table 1 Investi
  • Page 10 and 11: 4 Executive summary Result of the c
  • Page 12 and 13: 6 Executive summary Economic aspect
  • Page 15 and 16: 1 Goals, target groups and general
  • Page 17: 1 Goals, target groups and general
  • Page 20 and 21: 14 2 Biofuels under study The resul
  • Page 22 and 23: 16 2 Biofuels under study 2.3 Life
  • Page 24 and 25: 18 2 Biofuels under study 2.3.3 Mis
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  • Page 28 and 29: 22 2 Biofuels under study 2.5 Life
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  • Page 33 and 34: 3 Life cycle assessment of biofuels
  • Page 35 and 36: 3.2 Scope definition of the investi
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  • Page 41 and 42: 3.3 Inventory analysis 35 then. Eve
  • Page 43 and 44: 3.3 Inventory analysis 37 using the
  • Page 45 and 46: 3.4 Impact assessment 39 energy cro
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    4.1 Introduction 49 case excluding

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    4.2 European results: biofuels comp

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    4.3 European results: biofuels for

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    4.3 European results: biofuels for

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    4.3 European results: biofuels for

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    4.4 Summary of country specific res

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    4.5 Summary of comparisons between

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    80 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    82 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    84 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    86 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    88 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    90 6 Conclusions and recommendation

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    92 6 Conclusions and recommendation

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    94 6 Conclusions and recommendation

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    7 Annex 7.1 Country specific life c

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    7.2 Comparisons between the countri

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    7.4 List of authors and addresses 1

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    7.5 Data availability 175 7.5 Data

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    7.6 Literature 177 Hauschild and We

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