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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research

FRAMING POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POST-ELECTION NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS AND PARLIAMENTARY SPEECHES IN MALAWI Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Leicester by Japhet Ezra July Mchakulu BA (African Bible College) MS (Mississippi College) Department of Media and Communication University of Leicester 1 March 2011

  • Page 2 and 3: ii ABSTRACT FRAMING POLITICAL COMMU
  • Page 4 and 5: iv Of making many books there is no
  • Page 6 and 7: vi coding stage. Even though I cann
  • Page 8 and 9: viii LIST OF CONTENTS Abstract …
  • Page 10 and 11: 6.5 2004: An “Aberration” or a
  • Page 12 and 13: xii Table 4.17 Failed Government Fr
  • Page 14 and 15: xiv LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix I B
  • Page 16 and 17: 1.0 Introduction Chapter One Introd
  • Page 18 and 19: 3 section that sets forth the histo
  • Page 20 and 21: 1.1.2 Critical Issues on the Press
  • Page 22 and 23: 7 limited sample. In this respect,
  • Page 24 and 25: 9 About 3.8 million citizens voted
  • Page 26 and 27: 11 Violence erupted in the Northern
  • Page 28 and 29: 13 Tembo, drew most of his support
  • Page 30 and 31: 15 While the study will discuss the
  • Page 32 and 33: 17 epiphenomenal to the motivation
  • Page 34 and 35: 19 communication environment drawn
  • Page 36 and 37: 2.0 Introduction 21 Chapter Two Lit
  • Page 38 and 39: 23 involvement in them; frame is th
  • Page 40 and 41: 25 Asking such inquisitive question
  • Page 42 and 43: 27 Framing is not to be confused wi
  • Page 44 and 45: 29 In view of the preceding discuss
  • Page 46 and 47: 31 way news media frame political i
  • Page 48 and 49: 33 analytical tool is supported by
  • Page 50 and 51: 35 and powerful in society. Both th
  • Page 52 and 53:

    37 Both the state controlled and pr

  • Page 54 and 55:

    39 as a response to the state‟s e

  • Page 56 and 57:

    41 2.3.1 Challenges to the Democrat

  • Page 58 and 59:

    43 Malawi Police Service which was

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    45 Nations‟ UNDP Human Developmen

  • Page 62 and 63:

    47 Reviewing this particular aspect

  • Page 64 and 65:

    49 newspapers perceived to be too c

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    51 Sadly, the public service broadc

  • Page 68 and 69:

    53 by Chipangula (2004), Chimombo &

  • Page 70 and 71:

    55 Ideally, “hard” news is supp

  • Page 72 and 73:

    57 Although parliamentary debates r

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    59 The main conceptual scaffolding

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    61 Axial Coding of each editorial a

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    63 political affiliation influence

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    65 This study falls within frame th

  • Page 82 and 83:

    67 the voluminous text data. The th

  • Page 84 and 85:

    69 software to reconvert the data t

  • Page 86 and 87:

    3.2.3 Parliamentary Speeches 71 Onl

  • Page 88 and 89:

    73 instrument. The process identifi

  • Page 90 and 91:

    75 paragraph was assigned to an app

  • Page 92 and 93:

    77 At the Axial Coding stage, which

  • Page 94 and 95:

    79 Thus, out of the 82 newspaper ed

  • Page 96 and 97:

    81 sense of the flavour of the data

  • Page 98 and 99:

    83 As a safe-guard, Borg and Gall (

  • Page 100 and 101:

    85 In previous research, frames hav

  • Page 102 and 103:

    87 The overarching reason is what T

  • Page 104 and 105:

    89 Given the argument by Gall, Borg

  • Page 106 and 107:

    4.1 The Newspapers Landscape 91 Whi

  • Page 108 and 109:

    93 Of the 199 paragraphs coded in t

  • Page 110 and 111:

    95 issue of governance, and how thi

  • Page 112 and 113:

    97 paragraphs coded in the Problem

  • Page 114 and 115:

    99 In identifying the UDF as the cu

  • Page 116 and 117:

    101 Table 4.6 above presents the BN

  • Page 118 and 119:

    103 coded to this particular effect

  • Page 120 and 121:

    105 . . . let us spend a little to

  • Page 122 and 123:

    107 The Nation and the Chronicle id

  • Page 124 and 125:

    109 Results of the presidential and

  • Page 126 and 127:

    4.3.3.1 Magnification Entman (2004,

  • Page 128 and 129:

    113 the 1994 newspapers corpus, the

  • Page 130 and 131:

    115 Bourgault (1995, p.4-5). All th

  • Page 132 and 133:

    117 citizens who had repudiated the

  • Page 134 and 135:

    119 was unique to the parliamentary

  • Page 136 and 137:

    121 In the moral evaluation compone

  • Page 138 and 139:

    123 Table 4.16: Failed Government F

  • Page 140 and 141:

    125 challenge the UDF to explain ho

  • Page 142 and 143:

    127 the country was a total failure

  • Page 144 and 145:

    129 manner that resonates with the

  • Page 146 and 147:

    131 Assembly concerning governance

  • Page 148 and 149:

    133 evidence presented in this chap

  • Page 150 and 151:

    135 Chapter Five 1999 Post-Election

  • Page 152 and 153:

    137 though the question of ownershi

  • Page 154 and 155:

    139 followed by an interpretative d

  • Page 156 and 157:

    141 newspapers used a series of int

  • Page 158 and 159:

    143 Moral Evaluation component had

  • Page 160 and 161:

    145 Another editorial writer in the

  • Page 162 and 163:

    147 As for the MCP/AFORD activists

  • Page 164 and 165:

    149 which followed the election was

  • Page 166 and 167:

    151 rooted in traditional community

  • Page 168 and 169:

    153 mismanaged the election in orde

  • Page 170 and 171:

    155 From a purely numbers point of

  • Page 172 and 173:

    157 newspapers attempted to subvert

  • Page 174 and 175:

    159 media scholars reached (Chimomb

  • Page 176 and 177:

    161 and freedom (See Table 5.8) (Ja

  • Page 178 and 179:

    163 p.50). Another noted: “. . .

  • Page 180 and 181:

    165 power were obliged to submit to

  • Page 182 and 183:

    167 any solutions to the problem ex

  • Page 184 and 185:

    5.5 Conclusion 169 Regarding the fi

  • Page 186 and 187:

    171 Chapter Six 2004 Post-Election

  • Page 188 and 189:

    173 Gwanda Chakuamba, which had 15

  • Page 190 and 191:

    175 In total, there were 75 article

  • Page 192 and 193:

    177 The last frame in the newspaper

  • Page 194 and 195:

    179 highest rank in the UDF Nationa

  • Page 196 and 197:

    181 ruling UDF party. There were 13

  • Page 198 and 199:

    183 Table 6.6). For example, Rob Ja

  • Page 200 and 201:

    185 was drawn from 30 articles repr

  • Page 202 and 203:

    187 corpus, the MPs accused the for

  • Page 204 and 205:

    189 There were 31 and 39 coded para

  • Page 206 and 207:

    191 as a demonstration of his limit

  • Page 208 and 209:

    193 could only have received salien

  • Page 210 and 211:

    195 Moral evaluations which drew on

  • Page 212 and 213:

    197 government. All these are issue

  • Page 214 and 215:

    199 former president Bakili Muluzi

  • Page 216 and 217:

    201 This problem inherent in the Co

  • Page 218 and 219:

    203 indiscipline in the previous go

  • Page 220 and 221:

    205 Government Frame, Mutharika‟s

  • Page 222 and 223:

    207 In addition, several former hig

  • Page 224 and 225:

    209 contesting party (See Commonwea

  • Page 226 and 227:

    211 Change in ownership at the BNL

  • Page 228 and 229:

    213 service to newspapers consumers

  • Page 230 and 231:

    215 important framing device in the

  • Page 232 and 233:

    217 of different news topics, some

  • Page 234 and 235:

    219 Table 7.1: Collated comparison

  • Page 236 and 237:

    221 only emerge out of partisan new

  • Page 238 and 239:

    223 situations where the content of

  • Page 240 and 241:

    225 the new administration‟s econ

  • Page 242 and 243:

    227 media scholars that journalists

  • Page 244 and 245:

    Table 7.2: Newspapers frame compone

  • Page 246 and 247:

    231 p=0.000). In the same case stud

  • Page 248 and 249:

    233 7.2, this presents a slightly s

  • Page 250 and 251:

    235 The Unity Frame of 1999 in the

  • Page 252 and 253:

    237 efficiency and fiscal disciplin

  • Page 254 and 255:

    8.0 Introduction 239 Chapter Eight

  • Page 256 and 257:

    241 in Malawi‟s political arena e

  • Page 258 and 259:

    243 model to frame national issues.

  • Page 260 and 261:

    245 new ruling elite, especially th

  • Page 262 and 263:

    8.2.1 The State and National Cultur

  • Page 264 and 265:

    249 national life. The events in th

  • Page 266 and 267:

    8.2.4 Press Owners 251 After politi

  • Page 268 and 269:

    253 corps that did not have deep et

  • Page 270 and 271:

    255 whose aim is to assert the pres

  • Page 272 and 273:

    257 Other deeply contested democrat

  • Page 274 and 275:

    259 favouring one side in political

  • Page 276 and 277:

    261 the agency of democracy and a q

  • Page 278 and 279:

    263 for a detailed discussion). The

  • Page 280 and 281:

    265 floundered due to financial con

  • Page 282 and 283:

    267 would enable newspaper readers

  • Page 284 and 285:

    269 awareness of these provisions w

  • Page 286 and 287:

    271 centres of political power. If

  • Page 288 and 289:

    273 transform Malawian democratic i

  • Page 290 and 291:

    275 APPENDIX I BRIEF HISTORICAL OUT

  • Page 292 and 293:

    277 APPENDIX II QDA MINER INTERFACE

  • Page 294 and 295:

    279 APPENDIX IV NEWSPAPER CLIP OF A

  • Page 296 and 297:

    11 August 2009 Japhet, 281 APPENDIX

  • Page 298 and 299:

    283 There are some studies done in

  • Page 300 and 301:

    285 References Adamson, W. L. 1980.

  • Page 302 and 303:

    287 the Alzheimer disease movement.

  • Page 304 and 305:

    289 The Sociological Review, Vol. 5

  • Page 306 and 307:

    291 procedures for developing groun

  • Page 308 and 309:

    293 Denscombe, M. (1998) The Good R

  • Page 310 and 311:

    295 Fisher, Kim. 1997. Locating Fra

  • Page 312 and 313:

    Arnold. 297 Goldman, R., Rajagopal,

  • Page 314 and 315:

    299 E.M., and Foster, J.B. (eds) Ca

  • Page 316 and 317:

    301 "Grounded Theory" Reconsidered.

  • Page 318 and 319:

    52(1), 211-28. 303 Lipenga, K. (200

  • Page 320 and 321:

    305 Malawi's Broadcasting Media. Af

  • Page 322 and 323:

    Renewal. London: Sage. 307 Moya, L.

  • Page 324 and 325:

    309 Nsapato, L.D. (2004a) „Malawi

  • Page 326 and 327:

    311 Ranger, T. (2005) The Rise of P

  • Page 328 and 329:

    313 Smitherman-Donaldson and T.A. v

  • Page 330 and 331:

    315 Text Analysis of CNN and BBC On

  • Page 332 and 333:

    Press. 317 Vliegenthart, R. & Rogge

  • Page 334 and 335:

    Day, p. 28-30. 319 Ziegler, D. & As

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