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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

105 . . . let us spend a

105 . . . let us spend a little to have a few Chewas, Tumbukas, Lomwes, Senas, Ngonis and others dancing together at some agreed place to mark this important day. It will not alleviate poverty, but it will go some way towards enhancing the spirit of togetherness. And that is desperately needed in these days. 4.3.2 Governance Frames The Governance Frame represents what may have been the UDF‟s attempt to define the nation‟s future. The parliamentary Governance Frame was drawn from 35 speeches representing 43.8% of the 80 speeches in the 1994 corpus (see Table 4.2 above). Of these 35 speeches, 26 were presented by UDF MPs while the nine were delivered by MCP/AFORD alliance MPs. The coded paragraphs in the newspapers Governance Frame were drawn from 25 newspaper articles representing 29% of the 86 articles in the 1994 newspapers corpus. Of the 25 articles 17 were presented by the Nation and the Chronicle while the remainder were presented by the BNL newspapers.. The frame drew heavily from the national collective memory to remind Malawians of their suffering under the MCP government. It also attempted to re-assure them of better days to come in terms of governance. The Sub-Section will begin by presenting the UDF, and the Nation and the Chronicle‟s case for governance. This will be followed by the BNL newspapers and the MCP/AFORD alliance‟s response. Similar to the previous subsection, this section attempts to draw attention to the ideological positions of the newspapers and their similarities to the relevant political parties represented in parliament. 4.3.2.1 The Nation and the Chronicle/The UDF

106 In eight paragraphs (See Table 4.10), the Nation and the Chronicle sought to convince their readers that democracy could benefit the people (See Table 4.10). The two newspapers argued that the MCP‟s much vaunted order and security was imposed on the nation at the expense of freedom. Makwiti (1994) argued that: “The so-called peace, calm, law and order of the MCP was imposed at great human expense . . .” An editorial writer in the Chronicle (1994a) observed: “Someone ought to remind those pining for the old „peace, calm, law and order‟ of the human rights abuses that accompanied it.” In this respect, the Nation and the Chronicle were very much in agreement with the UDF MPs, who argued in 14 paragraphs, that dictatorship had brought misery and human rights abuses for the people of Malawi. Lemani (1994) observed: In the name of law and order, many people became food for the crocodiles, others were thrown into detention camps and families torn apart. Table 4.10: Governance Frame‟s Problem Definition in the Nation and the Chronicle, and the UDF Problem Definitions Presenters Paragraphs Articles Democracy should benefit the people Nation and Chronicle 8 (100%) 8 Problem Definitions Presenters Paragraphs Speeches The previous dictatorial regime had to be removed UDF 14 (100%) 12 This way of defining the problem by the Nation and the Chronicle, and the UDF and the AFORD opened the way for identifying the pro-democracy activists as the causal agents for the new governance order. The Roman Catholic Bishops, who were seen as the leading local catalysts to the events leading to the referendum in 1993, were mentioned six times as causal agents. Chakufwa Chihana, the leader of AFORD, and Bakili Muluzi were mentioned four and two times respectively. The pressure groups were mentioned twice (See Table 4.11).

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