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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

xiv LIST OF APPENDICES

xiv LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix I Brief Outline of Malawi‟s Political History Since 1963................... 276 Appendix II QDA Miner Interface on Computer Monitor After Open Coding of an Editorial Appearing in the Malawi News of 28 th June 1994 Entitled “Muluzi in a Hurry”............................................................ 278 Appendix III Open Coding for a Newspaper Editorial Appearing in the Malawi News of 28 th June 1994 Entitled “Muluzi in a Hurry”..................... 279 Appendix IV Newspaper Clip of an Editorial Appearing in the Malawi News of 28 th June 1994 Entitled “Muluzi in a Hurry”............................... 280 Appendix V Pilot Study Holsti Intercoder Reliability Calculations..................... 281 Appendix VI Peer Review Feedback of the Axial Coding Stage.......................... 282 Appendix VII A Model for Framing Political Communication in Malawi............. 285

xv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AFORD Alliance for Democracy BNL Blantyre Newspapers Limited CAQDAS Computer-assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software CONU Congress of National Unity EISA Electoral Institute of Southern Africa IMF International Monetary Fund JAMA Journalists Association of Malawi MBC Malawi Broadcasting Corporation MCP Malawi Congress Party MCM Media Council of Malawi MEC Malawi Electoral Commission MGODE Movement for Genuine Democracy MISA Media Institute of Southern Africa MP Member of Parliament NDA National Democratic Alliance NPL Nation Publications Limited PETRA People‟s Tranformation Alliance PPM People‟s Progressive Movement QDA Miner Qualitative Data Analysis Miner RP Republican Party TVM Television Malawi UDF United Democratic Front

  • Page 1 and 2: FRAMING POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN
  • Page 3 and 4: iii To the memory of late my father
  • Page 5 and 6: v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Together with the
  • Page 7 and 8: vii Fortenberry, Dr. Merle Ziegler,
  • Page 9 and 10: 3.2 The Data…………………
  • Page 11 and 12: xi LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Profile
  • Page 13: xiii Table 7.2 Newspapers frame com
  • Page 17 and 18: 2 why the newspapers‟ discourse i
  • Page 19 and 20: 4 had successfully convinced Wester
  • Page 21 and 22: 6 be able to establish whether or n
  • Page 23 and 24: 8 The first reason is that the pres
  • Page 25 and 26: 1.2.2 1999 Post-Election Case Study
  • Page 27 and 28: 12 Mutharika, a former World Bank e
  • Page 29 and 30: 14 Malawi, and how this study will
  • Page 31 and 32: 16 this study was denied. Thus, the
  • Page 33 and 34: 18 provide a better understanding o
  • Page 35 and 36: 20 The next chapter examines the th
  • Page 37 and 38: 22 about each other. The social fra
  • Page 39 and 40: 24 . . . to frame is to select some
  • Page 41 and 42: 26 Journalists select whom to quote
  • Page 43 and 44: 28 text and separate the issues inh
  • Page 45 and 46: 30 society” (Gitlin 1980, p.10; D
  • Page 47 and 48: 32 African media have coupled it wi
  • Page 49 and 50: 34 especially true with respect to
  • Page 51 and 52: 36 content. The argument is that th
  • Page 53 and 54: 38 ownership and that owner‟s ali
  • Page 55 and 56: 40 ownership and its influence on j
  • Page 57 and 58: 42 Khaila and Chibwana (2005) noted
  • Page 59 and 60: 44 respondent are reported to be in
  • Page 61 and 62: 46 their role in a multiparty socie
  • Page 63 and 64: 48 Within this strand of literature
  • Page 65 and 66:

    50 Chipangula (2004:23), in her com

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    52 In short, the government has not

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    2.5.1 Editorials and Opinion Column

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    56 In this respect, as will be note

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    58 (1972)‟s agenda-setting theory

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    3.0 Introduction 60 Chapter Three M

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    62 Contextual factors in case studi

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    64 (problem definition, causal inte

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    66 Journalists, through editorials,

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    68 coded and uncoded text could be

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    70 For the 1994 case study, the edi

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    72 of parliament was the 38 th Sess

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    74 a. What are the perceived moral

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    76 literature on culture, politics,

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    78 However, even though the above m

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    80 For the 1994 editorial corpus, t

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    82 3.5.2 Researcher Positioning and

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    3.6 Limitations of the Study 84 Hav

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    86 These include the issue of objec

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    88 researcher of the task of interp

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    90 Chapter Four 1994 Post-Election

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    92 prominent among them were the BN

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    94 The parliamentary corpus consist

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    4.3.1 Unity Frames 96 The first par

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    98 Any leader governing a fragmente

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    100 emotions negatively against any

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    102 reconciliation. This aspect was

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    104 In their moral evaluations, the

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    106 In eight paragraphs (See Table

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    108 Tribalism, regionalism and favo

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    110 Even though the UDF-led governm

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    112 and its leadership as being res

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    114 In contrast, the Nation and the

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    116 the same of today‟s change? W

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    118 The foregoing section discussed

  • Page 135 and 136:

    120 Further to that, the president

  • Page 137 and 138:

    122 President Bakili Muluzi, who ri

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    124 advanced the argument that the

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    126 polemics masquerade as critical

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    128 The section discusses two gener

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    130 4.5.2.1 Opposition Journalism i

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    132 opposition parties sought to im

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    134 The second research question in

  • Page 151 and 152:

    5.1 The Newspapers Landscape 136 Th

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    138 Table 5.1: Summary of Editorial

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    140 (See Table 5.2). As the editori

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    142 otherwise the country would deg

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    144 Malawi today stands a confused

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    146 Who can speak a good word in se

  • Page 163 and 164:

    148 The Problem Definition and the

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    150 As treatment recommendations, t

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    152 leader who has been declared a

  • Page 169 and 170:

    154 information with contradictory

  • Page 171 and 172:

    156 event of a minority winner emer

  • Page 173 and 174:

    158 addition, the UDF was reported

  • Page 175 and 176:

    160 The second was the Leadership F

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    162 The first Moral Evaluation argu

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    164 country.” In that respect Mul

  • Page 181 and 182:

    166 For example, the first media re

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    168 However, the NPL newspapers did

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    170 self-congratulatory, they simpl

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    172 The following section of the ch

  • Page 189 and 190:

    174 Apart from the change of politi

  • Page 191 and 192:

    176 The newspapers‟ Challenges Fr

  • Page 193 and 194:

    178 framed, his party, the UDF and

  • Page 195 and 196:

    180 committed in the course of his

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    182 The second aspect of this compo

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    184 the party and cut his own swath

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    186 nuanced pinpointing problem are

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    188 Table 6.9: Treatment Recommenda

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    190 to the public (making it less a

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    192 not only unable to deal with th

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    194 effort and performance. Further

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    196 . . . our interconnectedness, o

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    198 to the Challenges Frame and its

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    200 The frame had 42 paragraphs cod

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    202 in the 11 speeches (See Table 6

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    204 to arrogance. There were 13 suc

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    206 Political actors recognize that

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    208 The Failed Government Frame was

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    210 For example, one of the main st

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    212 Admittedly, we were critical to

  • Page 229 and 230:

    214 newspapers maybe an indication

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    7.0 Introduction 216 Chapter Seven

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    218 detected in both the newspapers

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    220 adopt that issue as a cause for

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    222 commercial city of Blantyre for

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    224 the Unity Frame, in particular,

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    226 prescriptions. The Failed Gover

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    228 political communication. In det

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    Table 7.3: Parliamentary frame comp

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    232 Table 7.4: Chi Square Test diff

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    234 was rooted in this aspect of mo

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    236 argument that framing in politi

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    238 study established generalisatio

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    240 understand how the press have m

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    242 Thus, in 1994, the Nation and t

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    244 divisive rhetoric when celebrat

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    246 president. The Electoral Proces

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    248 The state is also important in

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    250 when Rob Jamieson changed the C

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    252 In the 2004 post election perio

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    254 and analytical national interes

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    256 The first is value association

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    258 Perhaps one of the most strikin

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    260 target audience to think, feel

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    262 an objective press working in t

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    264 limbo at the BNL newspapers. On

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    266 organizations often face cash c

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    268 Thus, the government must lead

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    270 problem is diversification of m

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    272 Another area requiring further

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    274 Assembly cues. This type of jou

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    276 1994 - The first multiparty ele

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    278 APPENDIX III OPEN CODING FOR A

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    280 APPENDIX V PILOT STUDY HOLSTI I

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    282 that you change the labelling o

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    284 APPENDIX VII A MODEL FOR FRAMIN

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    286 Asen, R. (1999) „Toward a nor

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    288 new management ideas in constru

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    290 Cho, S. H., & Gower, K. K. (200

  • Page 307 and 308:

    292 Daily Times (1994c) „Potentia

  • Page 309 and 310:

    294 Eko, L. (2004) Hear all evil, s

  • Page 311 and 312:

    296 Study Research. (paper presente

  • Page 313 and 314:

    298 Hall, S. (1980) Race, Articulat

  • Page 315 and 316:

    300 Jamieson, R. (1999) „Calling

  • Page 317 and 318:

    302 on public opinion: The rise and

  • Page 319 and 320:

    304 Malawi News (1999g) „Let the

  • Page 321 and 322:

    Palgrave. 306 McManus, M. (1994). M

  • Page 323 and 324:

    308 Nampuntha, C. (1994) „Aid, fa

  • Page 325 and 326:

    310 Patel, N. (2004) In Ott, M., Im

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    312 the Church. Ecumenical Review,

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    314 Snow, D.A. & Benford. R.D. (198

  • Page 331 and 332:

    Media Review, Vol. 5, No.1. p. 1-16

  • Page 333 and 334:

    318 Watkins, S. C. (2001). Framing

  • Page 335:

    320

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