Views
5 years ago

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

163 p.50). Another

163 p.50). Another noted: “. . . during the one party system under late Dr. Kamuzu Banda, many people were food for crocodiles.” (Kaliati, 1999, p.58). All of these three strands coalesced into a simple but emphatic appropriation of democratic values by the UDF. The UDF MPs‟ claim to exclusive rights over democratic values is reflective of value ownership (Nelson, Wittmer and Shortle, 2010, p. 14). The UDF MPs attempted to boost the esteem of the party laying exclusive claim to the values of democracy while denouncing the UDF‟s rivals, the MCP, as lacking in these values. To exclusively claim these rights was, not only to dispossess the other parties of them, but it was to claim that the UDF was the only party capable of governing the democratic people of Malawi. Of course such a framing in the post-election period and the National Assembly was only possible because there was no one to challenge the UDF. An opposition in parliament could have easily referred to the just ended election, which had been declared free but not fair, as an example of how the UDF could not claim exclusive rights to the values of democracy. 5.3.3.2 Metaphors and Religion Aside from the above appropriation of democratic values, the UDF MPs also constructed the Leadership Frame using resonant religious metaphors. Malawians are deeply religious. Over 80% claim to be devout Christians and 13% claim to be devout Muslims (See Khaila and Chibwana, 2005). Thus, it is not surprising that the UDF MPs sought to present their leader, President Bakili Muluzi, in religiously resonant language. Such moral evaluations for the UDF leader rose out of a causal attribution that presented Muluzi as the effective leader who had guided the UDF towards successful implementation of its manifesto since 1994. Dafter (1999, p.68) noted: “. . . the President deserves winning due to various development projects he has done in this

164 country.” In that respect Muluzi was portrayed as a good leader who was “. . . chosen by God” as Makhumula (1999, p.71) declared on the National Assembly floor. Consequently, the MPs as Mathanda (1994, p.73) noted: “. . . thank the living God for again accepting Dr. Bakili Muluzi to lead this nation for another five years.” This type of religious frame construction in the National Assembly was not accidental. It deliberately keyed into the religious beliefs which are held so dear by Malawians. It was a reflection of the role and influence of religion - an important identifiable cultural attribute - in Malawi‟s Second Republic. Further, it suggests that religion potentially offers an ideologically and sociologically rich context for national identity formation in the Second Republic. As Damon (1993) and Erikson (1968) note, people strive to make sense of the world and to assert their place in it and religion intentionally offers beliefs, moral codes and values from which a people build belief system. Verba, Schlozman, and Brady (1995) point to three types of resources that are instrumental in explaining people‟s political behavior: money (resources), civic skills (church-based and nonchurch training) that such institutions provide their members, and social ties. The UDF MPs used religion to tap into the reservoir of these beliefs, worldview, and values of religious traditions – especially Christianity and Islam, to provide an ideological context in which Malawians could connect with the re-elected President Muluzi. Apart from the above, evoking the name of God and turning to religion may have served a second purpose. With the opposition challenging the victory in the High Court, the UDF MPs may have felt the need to reach out to religion to offer a sense of legitimacy to their victory as Thengo Maloya (1999, p.100) argued: “. . . the Bible calls on every believer to pray for their leaders because every authority comes from God.” Consequently, believers who did not think that Muluzi and his UDF deserved to be in

Chapter 4 Sexual Content in Soap Operas - Leicester Research ...
iieiiei1eWrkers - Leicester Research Archive - University of Leicester
NOVEL RESVERATROL ANALOGUES - Leicester Research ...
t he display of archaeology - Leicester Research Archive - University ...