Views
5 years ago

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

8.2.1 The State and

8.2.1 The State and National Culture 247 Arguably, the most important aspect of the framing model in this study is the state/national culture government aspect (See Appendix VII). As Archetti (2006, p. 32) argues in her multi-national frame theory study of 9/11, the state acts as “a background for both political and media fields.” The state defines the rules in which political actors and the press interact to set the emergent frames. Indeed, as Eko (2004, p.123) argues regarding frame theory in Africa, and as Chuma (2007) found out in his framing study of political transitions in Zimbabwe, conditions imposed by the state can greatly constrain the press from adequately serving the public sphere. In this study, a case in point is the background to the 1999 case study, and thereafter the run-up of the 2004 elections, when the UDF government turned predatory and thuggish by deploying party cadre and the state security apparatus against political opponents including the press, civil society and opposition politicians (See Muula & Chanika, 2004; Khaila and Mthinda, 2006). In this study, the emergent frames in the 1994 and 1999 case study reflects conditions created by the state/government which permitted the press and the National Assembly to operate freely. However, the very same conditions created by the state prevented important advertising funds from reaching newspapers perceived to be hostile to the UDF-led regime. In 2004, President Mutharika‟s definition of his government post election agenda was very much centred on the state rather than his political party. The state/government‟s immediate movements to implement this agenda including anti- corruption arrests and prosecutions and implementation of economic measures created a reality on the ground that could not be ignored especially by the newly emancipated press.

248 The state is also important in the framing model in Malawi because the media are still in formative stages. The laws governing the media are still being shaped. The government‟s input and willingness to implement press friendly laws in the process creating a friendly environment is important. Further, the condition of the greater political economy in which the press operates is largely decided by state. As noted earlier, the state provides important advertising revenue to the press. The government‟s willingness to continue doing so is limited by the state of the economy as Chuma (2007) found out in the Zimbabwean situation. The study has established the powerful effect of culture on the emergent frames. The narrative aspect of the frame is particularly affected. For example, in all the three case studies, both parliamentarians and the newspaper editorial writers drew heavily on cultural values. These values may have been political values as in the case of the prevailing ideology of democracy or they may have been traditional values as in the case of the national unity frames. As Nelson, Wittmer and Shortle (2010) argue, democratic values are particularly relevant in framing because those are resonant with people‟s yearning for freedom. The use of metaphors drawn from religion and traditional culture also testifies to the importance of culture in the framing model in Malawi. The use of these metaphors and exemplar structure the frame narratives around culturally embedded aspects of Malawian society such as religion and the importance of the common good. As Entman (2004) notes, a frame resonates when it draws on the habitual schemas of society. 8.2.2 Real Events Aside from the above, framing arises out of reportage or commentary on real world events. These real events arise out of the broader political economy of the state and

Chapter 4 Sexual Content in Soap Operas - Leicester Research ...
iieiiei1eWrkers - Leicester Research Archive - University of Leicester
NOVEL RESVERATROL ANALOGUES - Leicester Research ...
t he display of archaeology - Leicester Research Archive - University ...