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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

13 Tembo, drew most of

13 Tembo, drew most of his support from the Central Region where he managed 64% of the vote. He got only 3% in the Northern Region and 2% in the Southern Region. The MCP emerged as the largest party in the new parliament with 59 seats representing 30.5% of the total seats in the National Assembly. The UDF had 49 seats representing 25.3% of the total. The Mgwirizano Coalitions had 27 seats representing 13.9% of the total and 38 seats were taken by independent candidates representing 19.6% of the total. Other political parties took 14 seats representing 7.2% of the total. It is important to note that these elections marked the beginning of the demise of the AFORD as a major party in Malawi. It only managed one seat in the new parliament. Given this chaotic background during the campaign period and run-up to the general election, it was not surprising that the election outcome was disputed. This is particularly true of the presidential race. There were riots in the largest commercial city, Blantyre in the Southern Region, and the city of Mzuzu in the Northern Region. The main opposition parties challenged the outcome in the High Court. The above factors shaped the discourse on political issues in the post-2004 election. The economy was in ruins due to years of fiscal indiscipline and corruption. There was a food crisis looming due to a drought. The ill-will generated by the perceived poor management of the election only seemed to exacerbate the political situation. Further, the perceived notion that the new president was a political puppet of the former president, Bakili Muluzi, meant that he could not expect much respect from parliament. 1.3 Research Questions The preceding sections have set out the political-historical context of the study. Further, it has identified gaps in present literature on the media‟s role in a multiparty

14 Malawi, and how this study will fill these gaps. In view of the preceding discussion, the research study attempts to answer the following related research questions: Research Question One: What were the similarities and differences in newspapers editorials and parliamentary speeches framing of political issues in the period immediately following the 1994, 1999, and 2004 general elections? Research Question Two: Based on the analysis in Question One above, is there evidence suggesting that changes in newspapers‟ ownership and its alignment to political parties result in changes in the nature of framing in editorials across the case studies? With respect to Question One, the study will attempt to address the issue of whether or not newspapers have attained the much desired level of critical independent journalism reflecting the national interest rather than narrow political ambitions of the newspapers‟ owners (Chimombo and Chimombo, 1996, p.25-33; Chimombo and Chimombo, 1996, p. 61-74; Chipangula, 2004; Patel, 2000). The question will attempt to establish whether or not newspapers act as an arena where popular political will is shaped, to paraphrase Dahlgren and Sparks (1991, p.2). To establish that aspect, a comparative approach is taken in which editorial frames are compared to parliamentary framing where framing is shaped by political party affiliation. With respect to Question Two, the study will attempt to establish the evolution of frames over the ten years covered by the case studies. In doing this, the frames detected in the analysis for Question One will be examined against the backdrop of changing newspapers‟ ownership and its alignment to political parties represented in parliament over the ten years period. This is in view of the historical position of the press in Malawi as will be discussed in the literature review chapter.

  • Page 1 and 2: FRAMING POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN
  • Page 3 and 4: iii To the memory of late my father
  • Page 5 and 6: v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Together with the
  • Page 7 and 8: vii Fortenberry, Dr. Merle Ziegler,
  • Page 9 and 10: 3.2 The Data…………………
  • Page 11 and 12: xi LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Profile
  • Page 13 and 14: xiii Table 7.2 Newspapers frame com
  • Page 15 and 16: xv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AFORD Alli
  • Page 17 and 18: 2 why the newspapers‟ discourse i
  • Page 19 and 20: 4 had successfully convinced Wester
  • Page 21 and 22: 6 be able to establish whether or n
  • Page 23 and 24: 8 The first reason is that the pres
  • Page 25 and 26: 1.2.2 1999 Post-Election Case Study
  • Page 27: 12 Mutharika, a former World Bank e
  • Page 31 and 32: 16 this study was denied. Thus, the
  • Page 33 and 34: 18 provide a better understanding o
  • Page 35 and 36: 20 The next chapter examines the th
  • Page 37 and 38: 22 about each other. The social fra
  • Page 39 and 40: 24 . . . to frame is to select some
  • Page 41 and 42: 26 Journalists select whom to quote
  • Page 43 and 44: 28 text and separate the issues inh
  • Page 45 and 46: 30 society” (Gitlin 1980, p.10; D
  • Page 47 and 48: 32 African media have coupled it wi
  • Page 49 and 50: 34 especially true with respect to
  • Page 51 and 52: 36 content. The argument is that th
  • Page 53 and 54: 38 ownership and that owner‟s ali
  • Page 55 and 56: 40 ownership and its influence on j
  • Page 57 and 58: 42 Khaila and Chibwana (2005) noted
  • Page 59 and 60: 44 respondent are reported to be in
  • Page 61 and 62: 46 their role in a multiparty socie
  • Page 63 and 64: 48 Within this strand of literature
  • Page 65 and 66: 50 Chipangula (2004:23), in her com
  • Page 67 and 68: 52 In short, the government has not
  • Page 69 and 70: 2.5.1 Editorials and Opinion Column
  • Page 71 and 72: 56 In this respect, as will be note
  • Page 73 and 74: 58 (1972)‟s agenda-setting theory
  • Page 75 and 76: 3.0 Introduction 60 Chapter Three M
  • Page 77 and 78: 62 Contextual factors in case studi
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    64 (problem definition, causal inte

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    66 Journalists, through editorials,

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    68 coded and uncoded text could be

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    70 For the 1994 case study, the edi

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    72 of parliament was the 38 th Sess

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    74 a. What are the perceived moral

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    76 literature on culture, politics,

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    78 However, even though the above m

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    80 For the 1994 editorial corpus, t

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    82 3.5.2 Researcher Positioning and

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    3.6 Limitations of the Study 84 Hav

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    86 These include the issue of objec

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    88 researcher of the task of interp

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    90 Chapter Four 1994 Post-Election

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    92 prominent among them were the BN

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    94 The parliamentary corpus consist

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    4.3.1 Unity Frames 96 The first par

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    98 Any leader governing a fragmente

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    100 emotions negatively against any

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    102 reconciliation. This aspect was

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    104 In their moral evaluations, the

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    106 In eight paragraphs (See Table

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    108 Tribalism, regionalism and favo

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    110 Even though the UDF-led governm

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    112 and its leadership as being res

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    114 In contrast, the Nation and the

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    116 the same of today‟s change? W

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    118 The foregoing section discussed

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    120 Further to that, the president

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    122 President Bakili Muluzi, who ri

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    124 advanced the argument that the

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    126 polemics masquerade as critical

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    128 The section discusses two gener

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    130 4.5.2.1 Opposition Journalism i

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    132 opposition parties sought to im

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    134 The second research question in

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    5.1 The Newspapers Landscape 136 Th

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    138 Table 5.1: Summary of Editorial

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    140 (See Table 5.2). As the editori

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    142 otherwise the country would deg

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    144 Malawi today stands a confused

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    146 Who can speak a good word in se

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    148 The Problem Definition and the

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    150 As treatment recommendations, t

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    152 leader who has been declared a

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    154 information with contradictory

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    156 event of a minority winner emer

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    158 addition, the UDF was reported

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    160 The second was the Leadership F

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    162 The first Moral Evaluation argu

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    164 country.” In that respect Mul

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    166 For example, the first media re

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    168 However, the NPL newspapers did

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    170 self-congratulatory, they simpl

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    172 The following section of the ch

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    174 Apart from the change of politi

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    176 The newspapers‟ Challenges Fr

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    178 framed, his party, the UDF and

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    180 committed in the course of his

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    182 The second aspect of this compo

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    184 the party and cut his own swath

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    186 nuanced pinpointing problem are

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    188 Table 6.9: Treatment Recommenda

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    190 to the public (making it less a

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    192 not only unable to deal with th

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    194 effort and performance. Further

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    196 . . . our interconnectedness, o

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    198 to the Challenges Frame and its

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    200 The frame had 42 paragraphs cod

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    202 in the 11 speeches (See Table 6

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    204 to arrogance. There were 13 suc

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    206 Political actors recognize that

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    208 The Failed Government Frame was

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    210 For example, one of the main st

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    212 Admittedly, we were critical to

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    214 newspapers maybe an indication

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    7.0 Introduction 216 Chapter Seven

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    218 detected in both the newspapers

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    220 adopt that issue as a cause for

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    222 commercial city of Blantyre for

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    224 the Unity Frame, in particular,

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    226 prescriptions. The Failed Gover

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    228 political communication. In det

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    Table 7.3: Parliamentary frame comp

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    232 Table 7.4: Chi Square Test diff

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    234 was rooted in this aspect of mo

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    236 argument that framing in politi

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    238 study established generalisatio

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    240 understand how the press have m

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    242 Thus, in 1994, the Nation and t

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    244 divisive rhetoric when celebrat

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    246 president. The Electoral Proces

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    248 The state is also important in

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    250 when Rob Jamieson changed the C

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    252 In the 2004 post election perio

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    254 and analytical national interes

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    256 The first is value association

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    258 Perhaps one of the most strikin

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    260 target audience to think, feel

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    262 an objective press working in t

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    264 limbo at the BNL newspapers. On

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    266 organizations often face cash c

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    268 Thus, the government must lead

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    270 problem is diversification of m

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    272 Another area requiring further

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    274 Assembly cues. This type of jou

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    276 1994 - The first multiparty ele

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    278 APPENDIX III OPEN CODING FOR A

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    280 APPENDIX V PILOT STUDY HOLSTI I

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    282 that you change the labelling o

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    284 APPENDIX VII A MODEL FOR FRAMIN

  • Page 301 and 302:

    286 Asen, R. (1999) „Toward a nor

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    288 new management ideas in constru

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    290 Cho, S. H., & Gower, K. K. (200

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    292 Daily Times (1994c) „Potentia

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    294 Eko, L. (2004) Hear all evil, s

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    296 Study Research. (paper presente

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    298 Hall, S. (1980) Race, Articulat

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    300 Jamieson, R. (1999) „Calling

  • Page 317 and 318:

    302 on public opinion: The rise and

  • Page 319 and 320:

    304 Malawi News (1999g) „Let the

  • Page 321 and 322:

    Palgrave. 306 McManus, M. (1994). M

  • Page 323 and 324:

    308 Nampuntha, C. (1994) „Aid, fa

  • Page 325 and 326:

    310 Patel, N. (2004) In Ott, M., Im

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    312 the Church. Ecumenical Review,

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    314 Snow, D.A. & Benford. R.D. (198

  • Page 331 and 332:

    Media Review, Vol. 5, No.1. p. 1-16

  • Page 333 and 334:

    318 Watkins, S. C. (2001). Framing

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    320

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