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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

293 Denscombe, M. (1998)

293 Denscombe, M. (1998) The Good Research Guide for Small-Scale Social Research Projects. Buckingham: Open University Press. de Vreese, C.H., Peter, J., & Semetko, H.A. (2001) Framing Politics at the Launch of the Euro: A Cross-National Comparative Study of Frames in the News. Political Communication 18: 107-122. Dossi, M.T. (1999) Speech to the National Assembly, 19 th July. Hansard, National Assembly, 1 st Meeting 33 nd Session, Serial No.002, p.62-64. Downs, D. (2002). Representing Gun Owners: Frame Identification as Social Responsibility in News Media Discourse. Written Communication, 19(1), 44- 75. Doyle, G. (2002) Media ownership: The economics and politics of convergence and concentration in the UK and European media. Sage Publications: London. Dulani, B. (2004). The elections under scrutiny: Process – Results – Lessons. In M. Ott, B. Immink, B. Mhango, C. Peters-Berries (ed). The power of the vote: Malawi’s 2004 parliamentary and presidential elections. (pp. 7-28). Zomba: Kachere Series. Durham, F.D. 2001. Breaching Powerful Boundaries: A Postmodern Critique of Framing. In Reese, S. D., Gandy, O.H., & Grant, A.E. (eds) Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and our Understanding of the Social World,. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Eilders, C. (2006) News factors and news decisions: theoretical and empirical contributions of the German research tradition. Communications, 2, pp.5–24. EISA (2004) Malawi parliamentary and presidential elections, 20 May 2004, EISA:Johannesburg

294 Eko, L. (2004) Hear all evil, see all evil, rail against all evil: Le Messager and the Journalism of Resistance in Cameroon (p.123-154). In Mbaku, J.M. & Takougang, J. (ed). The Leadership Challenge in Africa: Cameroon Under Paul Biya. Africa World Press, Inc.: Trenton, NJ. Ellis, S. (2000) Reporting Africa. Current History. May. Pp.221-226. Entman, R.M. (1991) Framing U.S. Coverage of International News: Contrasts in Narratives of the Kal and Iran Air Incidents. Journal of Communication, Vol. 41. Entman, R.M. (1993) Framing: Towards clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4):51-58. Entman, R.M. (2004). Projections of power: Framing news, public opinion, and U.S. foreign policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Entman, R.M. (2010) Framing media power. In D‟Angelo, P. & Kuyper, J. (eds) Doing news framing analysis: Empirical and theoretical perspectives. Routledge Francis and Taylor Group: London. Erdmann, G., Patel, N., & Schweitzer, S. (2004) Political attitudes in Malawi: results from two opinion surveys, 1998 and 2000. Lilongwe, National Initiative for Civic Education. Ericson, R. V., Baranek, P. M., & Chan, J.B.L. (1987). Visualizing deviance: A study of news organization. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 345-364. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis.NewYork: Norton. Faringer, G. L. 1991. Press Freedom in Africa. New York: Praeger Firmstone, J. (2003). ‘Britain in the Euro?’: British newspaper editorial coverage of the introduction of the Euro. Centre for European Political Communications Working Papers Series, Issue 5/03.

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    FRAMING POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN

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    iii To the memory of late my father

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    v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Together with the

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    vii Fortenberry, Dr. Merle Ziegler,

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    3.2 The Data…………………

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    xi LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Profile

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    xiii Table 7.2 Newspapers frame com

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    xv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AFORD Alli

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    2 why the newspapers‟ discourse i

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    4 had successfully convinced Wester

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    6 be able to establish whether or n

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    8 The first reason is that the pres

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    1.2.2 1999 Post-Election Case Study

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    12 Mutharika, a former World Bank e

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    14 Malawi, and how this study will

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    16 this study was denied. Thus, the

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    18 provide a better understanding o

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    20 The next chapter examines the th

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    22 about each other. The social fra

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    24 . . . to frame is to select some

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    26 Journalists select whom to quote

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    28 text and separate the issues inh

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    30 society” (Gitlin 1980, p.10; D

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    32 African media have coupled it wi

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    34 especially true with respect to

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    36 content. The argument is that th

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    38 ownership and that owner‟s ali

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    40 ownership and its influence on j

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    42 Khaila and Chibwana (2005) noted

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    44 respondent are reported to be in

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    46 their role in a multiparty socie

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    48 Within this strand of literature

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    50 Chipangula (2004:23), in her com

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    52 In short, the government has not

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    2.5.1 Editorials and Opinion Column

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    56 In this respect, as will be note

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    58 (1972)‟s agenda-setting theory

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    3.0 Introduction 60 Chapter Three M

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    62 Contextual factors in case studi

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    64 (problem definition, causal inte

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    66 Journalists, through editorials,

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    68 coded and uncoded text could be

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    70 For the 1994 case study, the edi

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    72 of parliament was the 38 th Sess

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    74 a. What are the perceived moral

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    76 literature on culture, politics,

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    78 However, even though the above m

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    80 For the 1994 editorial corpus, t

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    82 3.5.2 Researcher Positioning and

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    3.6 Limitations of the Study 84 Hav

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    86 These include the issue of objec

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    88 researcher of the task of interp

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    90 Chapter Four 1994 Post-Election

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    92 prominent among them were the BN

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    94 The parliamentary corpus consist

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    4.3.1 Unity Frames 96 The first par

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    98 Any leader governing a fragmente

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    100 emotions negatively against any

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    102 reconciliation. This aspect was

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    104 In their moral evaluations, the

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    106 In eight paragraphs (See Table

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    108 Tribalism, regionalism and favo

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    110 Even though the UDF-led governm

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    112 and its leadership as being res

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    114 In contrast, the Nation and the

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    116 the same of today‟s change? W

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    118 The foregoing section discussed

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    120 Further to that, the president

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    122 President Bakili Muluzi, who ri

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    124 advanced the argument that the

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    126 polemics masquerade as critical

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    128 The section discusses two gener

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    130 4.5.2.1 Opposition Journalism i

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    132 opposition parties sought to im

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    134 The second research question in

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    5.1 The Newspapers Landscape 136 Th

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    138 Table 5.1: Summary of Editorial

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    140 (See Table 5.2). As the editori

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    142 otherwise the country would deg

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    144 Malawi today stands a confused

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    146 Who can speak a good word in se

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    148 The Problem Definition and the

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    150 As treatment recommendations, t

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    152 leader who has been declared a

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    154 information with contradictory

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    156 event of a minority winner emer

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    158 addition, the UDF was reported

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    160 The second was the Leadership F

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    162 The first Moral Evaluation argu

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    164 country.” In that respect Mul

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    166 For example, the first media re

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    168 However, the NPL newspapers did

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    170 self-congratulatory, they simpl

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    172 The following section of the ch

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    174 Apart from the change of politi

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    176 The newspapers‟ Challenges Fr

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    178 framed, his party, the UDF and

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    180 committed in the course of his

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    182 The second aspect of this compo

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    184 the party and cut his own swath

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    186 nuanced pinpointing problem are

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    188 Table 6.9: Treatment Recommenda

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    190 to the public (making it less a

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    192 not only unable to deal with th

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    194 effort and performance. Further

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    196 . . . our interconnectedness, o

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    198 to the Challenges Frame and its

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    200 The frame had 42 paragraphs cod

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    202 in the 11 speeches (See Table 6

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    204 to arrogance. There were 13 suc

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    206 Political actors recognize that

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    208 The Failed Government Frame was

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    210 For example, one of the main st

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    212 Admittedly, we were critical to

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    214 newspapers maybe an indication

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    7.0 Introduction 216 Chapter Seven

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    218 detected in both the newspapers

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    220 adopt that issue as a cause for

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    222 commercial city of Blantyre for

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    224 the Unity Frame, in particular,

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    226 prescriptions. The Failed Gover

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    228 political communication. In det

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    Table 7.3: Parliamentary frame comp

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    232 Table 7.4: Chi Square Test diff

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    234 was rooted in this aspect of mo

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    236 argument that framing in politi

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    238 study established generalisatio

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    240 understand how the press have m

  • Page 257 and 258: 242 Thus, in 1994, the Nation and t
  • Page 259 and 260: 244 divisive rhetoric when celebrat
  • Page 261 and 262: 246 president. The Electoral Proces
  • Page 263 and 264: 248 The state is also important in
  • Page 265 and 266: 250 when Rob Jamieson changed the C
  • Page 267 and 268: 252 In the 2004 post election perio
  • Page 269 and 270: 254 and analytical national interes
  • Page 271 and 272: 256 The first is value association
  • Page 273 and 274: 258 Perhaps one of the most strikin
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  • Page 277 and 278: 262 an objective press working in t
  • Page 279 and 280: 264 limbo at the BNL newspapers. On
  • Page 281 and 282: 266 organizations often face cash c
  • Page 283 and 284: 268 Thus, the government must lead
  • Page 285 and 286: 270 problem is diversification of m
  • Page 287 and 288: 272 Another area requiring further
  • Page 289 and 290: 274 Assembly cues. This type of jou
  • Page 291 and 292: 276 1994 - The first multiparty ele
  • Page 293 and 294: 278 APPENDIX III OPEN CODING FOR A
  • Page 295 and 296: 280 APPENDIX V PILOT STUDY HOLSTI I
  • Page 297 and 298: 282 that you change the labelling o
  • Page 299 and 300: 284 APPENDIX VII A MODEL FOR FRAMIN
  • Page 301 and 302: 286 Asen, R. (1999) „Toward a nor
  • Page 303 and 304: 288 new management ideas in constru
  • Page 305 and 306: 290 Cho, S. H., & Gower, K. K. (200
  • Page 307: 292 Daily Times (1994c) „Potentia
  • Page 311 and 312: 296 Study Research. (paper presente
  • Page 313 and 314: 298 Hall, S. (1980) Race, Articulat
  • Page 315 and 316: 300 Jamieson, R. (1999) „Calling
  • Page 317 and 318: 302 on public opinion: The rise and
  • Page 319 and 320: 304 Malawi News (1999g) „Let the
  • Page 321 and 322: Palgrave. 306 McManus, M. (1994). M
  • Page 323 and 324: 308 Nampuntha, C. (1994) „Aid, fa
  • Page 325 and 326: 310 Patel, N. (2004) In Ott, M., Im
  • Page 327 and 328: 312 the Church. Ecumenical Review,
  • Page 329 and 330: 314 Snow, D.A. & Benford. R.D. (198
  • Page 331 and 332: Media Review, Vol. 5, No.1. p. 1-16
  • Page 333 and 334: 318 Watkins, S. C. (2001). Framing
  • Page 335: 320
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