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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

305 Malawi's

305 Malawi's Broadcasting Media. Africa Media Review, 12(2), p.73-92. Marcinkowski, F. (2006). Mediensystem und politische Kommunikation. In U. Klöti, P. Knoepfel, H. Kriesi, W. Linder, Y. Papadopoulos & P. Sciarini (Eds.), Handbuch der Schweizer Politik (pp. 393-424). Zürich: NZZ Libro. Martin, D. (2003). Place-framing as place-making constituting a neighbourhood for organizing and activism. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Vol. 93 (3) pp. 730-750. Mathanda, E. (1999) Speech to the National Assembly, 19 th July. Hansard, National Assembly, 1 st Meeting 33 nd Session, Serial No.002, p.73-74. Maulidi P.J. (1999) Speech to the National Assembly, 19 th July. Hansard, National Assembly, 1 st Meeting 33 nd Session, Serial No.002, p.65-67. McChesney, R. (2000) Rich media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times. New York: The New Press. McChesney, R. W. (2000) „Commentary: The Political Economy of Communication and the Future of the Field‟, Media, Culture & Society, 22(1):109-116. McCombs, M. & Shaw, D. (1995) The agenda-setting function of mass media. In Boyd-Barrett, O., & Newbold, C.(eds). Approaches to Media: A Reader. London: Edward Arnold. McCombs, M., & Shaw, D.L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176-87. Mchakulu, J.E.J (2004) „Covering the 1999 and 2004 General Elections: Agents and Structures‟, Unpublished paper presented at the CAMRI conference University of Westminster 31 March 2006. McCullagh, C. (2002). Media Power: a Sociological Introduction. New York:

Palgrave. 306 McManus, M. (1994). Market driven journalism: Let the citizen beware? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. McNair, B. (2003) An Introduction to Political Communication. 3 rd Edition. London: Routledge. McQuail D. (2010) Mass Communication Theory. Sage Publications Ltd.: London. Meier, W. (2002) Media ownership: Does it matter. In Mansell, R., Samarajiva, R. & Mahan, A. (ed) Networking Knowledge for Information Societies: Institutions & Intervention. Deulft University Press: Deulft, The Netherland. Miller, M.M. (1997). Frame Mapping and Analysis of News Coverage of Contentious Issues. Social Science Computer Review, 15 (4): 367-78. Miller, M.M. and Riechert, B.P. (2001). The Spiral of Opportunity and Frame Resonance: Mapping the Issue Cycle in News and Public Discourse. In Reese, S.D., Gandy, O.H., & Grant, A.E. (Eds) Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and our Understanding of the Social World. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Miller, M.M., Andsager, J.L. & Riechert, B.P. (1998). Framing the candidates in presidential primaries: Issues and images in press releases and news coverage. Journalism Quarterly, 75(2): 312-24. Mkandawire, O.I. (1994) Speech to the National Assembly, 30 th June. Hansard, National Assembly, 1 st Meeting 30 th Session, First Day, p.122-131. Moisander, J. & Valtonen, A. (2006) Qualitative Marketing Research: A Cultural Approach. London: Sage. Mosco, V. (1996) The Political Economy of Communication: Rethinking and

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    FRAMING POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN

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    iii To the memory of late my father

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    v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Together with the

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    vii Fortenberry, Dr. Merle Ziegler,

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    3.2 The Data…………………

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    xi LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Profile

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    xiii Table 7.2 Newspapers frame com

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    xv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AFORD Alli

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    2 why the newspapers‟ discourse i

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    4 had successfully convinced Wester

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    6 be able to establish whether or n

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    8 The first reason is that the pres

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    1.2.2 1999 Post-Election Case Study

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    12 Mutharika, a former World Bank e

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    14 Malawi, and how this study will

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    16 this study was denied. Thus, the

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    18 provide a better understanding o

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    20 The next chapter examines the th

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    22 about each other. The social fra

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    24 . . . to frame is to select some

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    26 Journalists select whom to quote

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    28 text and separate the issues inh

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    30 society” (Gitlin 1980, p.10; D

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    32 African media have coupled it wi

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    34 especially true with respect to

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    36 content. The argument is that th

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    38 ownership and that owner‟s ali

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    40 ownership and its influence on j

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    42 Khaila and Chibwana (2005) noted

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    44 respondent are reported to be in

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    46 their role in a multiparty socie

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    48 Within this strand of literature

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    50 Chipangula (2004:23), in her com

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    52 In short, the government has not

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    2.5.1 Editorials and Opinion Column

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    56 In this respect, as will be note

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    58 (1972)‟s agenda-setting theory

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    3.0 Introduction 60 Chapter Three M

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    62 Contextual factors in case studi

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    64 (problem definition, causal inte

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    66 Journalists, through editorials,

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    68 coded and uncoded text could be

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    70 For the 1994 case study, the edi

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    72 of parliament was the 38 th Sess

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    74 a. What are the perceived moral

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    76 literature on culture, politics,

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    78 However, even though the above m

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    80 For the 1994 editorial corpus, t

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    82 3.5.2 Researcher Positioning and

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    3.6 Limitations of the Study 84 Hav

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    86 These include the issue of objec

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    88 researcher of the task of interp

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    90 Chapter Four 1994 Post-Election

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    92 prominent among them were the BN

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    94 The parliamentary corpus consist

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    4.3.1 Unity Frames 96 The first par

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    98 Any leader governing a fragmente

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    100 emotions negatively against any

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    102 reconciliation. This aspect was

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    104 In their moral evaluations, the

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    106 In eight paragraphs (See Table

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    108 Tribalism, regionalism and favo

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    110 Even though the UDF-led governm

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    112 and its leadership as being res

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    114 In contrast, the Nation and the

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    116 the same of today‟s change? W

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    118 The foregoing section discussed

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    120 Further to that, the president

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    122 President Bakili Muluzi, who ri

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    124 advanced the argument that the

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    126 polemics masquerade as critical

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    128 The section discusses two gener

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    130 4.5.2.1 Opposition Journalism i

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    132 opposition parties sought to im

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    134 The second research question in

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    5.1 The Newspapers Landscape 136 Th

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    138 Table 5.1: Summary of Editorial

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    140 (See Table 5.2). As the editori

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    142 otherwise the country would deg

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    144 Malawi today stands a confused

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    146 Who can speak a good word in se

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    148 The Problem Definition and the

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    150 As treatment recommendations, t

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    152 leader who has been declared a

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    154 information with contradictory

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    156 event of a minority winner emer

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    158 addition, the UDF was reported

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    160 The second was the Leadership F

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    162 The first Moral Evaluation argu

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    164 country.” In that respect Mul

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    166 For example, the first media re

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    168 However, the NPL newspapers did

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    170 self-congratulatory, they simpl

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    172 The following section of the ch

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    174 Apart from the change of politi

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    176 The newspapers‟ Challenges Fr

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    178 framed, his party, the UDF and

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    180 committed in the course of his

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    182 The second aspect of this compo

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    184 the party and cut his own swath

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    186 nuanced pinpointing problem are

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    188 Table 6.9: Treatment Recommenda

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    190 to the public (making it less a

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    192 not only unable to deal with th

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    194 effort and performance. Further

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    196 . . . our interconnectedness, o

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    198 to the Challenges Frame and its

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    200 The frame had 42 paragraphs cod

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    202 in the 11 speeches (See Table 6

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    204 to arrogance. There were 13 suc

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    206 Political actors recognize that

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    208 The Failed Government Frame was

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    210 For example, one of the main st

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    212 Admittedly, we were critical to

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    214 newspapers maybe an indication

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    7.0 Introduction 216 Chapter Seven

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    218 detected in both the newspapers

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    220 adopt that issue as a cause for

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    222 commercial city of Blantyre for

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    224 the Unity Frame, in particular,

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    226 prescriptions. The Failed Gover

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    228 political communication. In det

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    Table 7.3: Parliamentary frame comp

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    232 Table 7.4: Chi Square Test diff

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    234 was rooted in this aspect of mo

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    236 argument that framing in politi

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    238 study established generalisatio

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    240 understand how the press have m

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    242 Thus, in 1994, the Nation and t

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    244 divisive rhetoric when celebrat

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    246 president. The Electoral Proces

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    248 The state is also important in

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    250 when Rob Jamieson changed the C

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    252 In the 2004 post election perio

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  • Page 271 and 272: 256 The first is value association
  • Page 273 and 274: 258 Perhaps one of the most strikin
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  • Page 277 and 278: 262 an objective press working in t
  • Page 279 and 280: 264 limbo at the BNL newspapers. On
  • Page 281 and 282: 266 organizations often face cash c
  • Page 283 and 284: 268 Thus, the government must lead
  • Page 285 and 286: 270 problem is diversification of m
  • Page 287 and 288: 272 Another area requiring further
  • Page 289 and 290: 274 Assembly cues. This type of jou
  • Page 291 and 292: 276 1994 - The first multiparty ele
  • Page 293 and 294: 278 APPENDIX III OPEN CODING FOR A
  • Page 295 and 296: 280 APPENDIX V PILOT STUDY HOLSTI I
  • Page 297 and 298: 282 that you change the labelling o
  • Page 299 and 300: 284 APPENDIX VII A MODEL FOR FRAMIN
  • Page 301 and 302: 286 Asen, R. (1999) „Toward a nor
  • Page 303 and 304: 288 new management ideas in constru
  • Page 305 and 306: 290 Cho, S. H., & Gower, K. K. (200
  • Page 307 and 308: 292 Daily Times (1994c) „Potentia
  • Page 309 and 310: 294 Eko, L. (2004) Hear all evil, s
  • Page 311 and 312: 296 Study Research. (paper presente
  • Page 313 and 314: 298 Hall, S. (1980) Race, Articulat
  • Page 315 and 316: 300 Jamieson, R. (1999) „Calling
  • Page 317 and 318: 302 on public opinion: The rise and
  • Page 319: 304 Malawi News (1999g) „Let the
  • Page 323 and 324: 308 Nampuntha, C. (1994) „Aid, fa
  • Page 325 and 326: 310 Patel, N. (2004) In Ott, M., Im
  • Page 327 and 328: 312 the Church. Ecumenical Review,
  • Page 329 and 330: 314 Snow, D.A. & Benford. R.D. (198
  • Page 331 and 332: Media Review, Vol. 5, No.1. p. 1-16
  • Page 333 and 334: 318 Watkins, S. C. (2001). Framing
  • Page 335: 320
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