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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

59 The main conceptual

59 The main conceptual scaffolding in the study is frame theory analysis. Robert Entman‟s (1991/2004) definition of frames has been adopted for this study. More specifically, the study will apply the Issue-Specific Frame, otherwise known as the Emergent Frame, model to the analysis of the corpora in the study because of its ability to expose nuanced differences in the issues covered by the press during the periods understudy. The study attempted to locate the issues that could affect the emerging frames by discussing the role of the media in a democracy. In this respect, the issue of newspapers‟ ownership and its links to political parties was discussed. Further, the chapter also discussed the different models of journalism emerging in the African context in view of the ownership of media and its links to centres of political power. Since political culture and context is important to the interpretation of frames, the chapter also examined the political challenges facing the Malawian democracy experiment. Further, the chapter attempted to place this study within the context of the media content analysis scholarship in Malawi. The chapter observed the dearth of such research in Malawi and noted that this is most likely the first frame theory study in the country. Further, it observed that this study most likely draws from the biggest sample in comparison to previous studies in that country. In this respect, the study will improve on the knowledge already available concerning media coverage of political issues in Malawi.

3.0 Introduction 60 Chapter Three Methods This is a frame analysis study of discourse text in two different arenas: parliament and newspapers. The research focuses on three case studies spanning three time periods during the first one hundred days following presidential and parliamentary elections in 1994, 1999, and 2004. The year 1994 has been chosen as the starting point because it is the year a new government first came to power since 1964 in Malawi representing the ultimate end of the MCP dictatorship in Malawi. Second, the research compares and contrasts the frames detected in newspapers against those detected in the parliamentary discourse. Such a comparison will help to establish whether or not newspapers are facilitating a multifaceted debate in the political public space or just reflecting the political voices of their owners as they are represented in parliament. Thus, the four components that make up a frame (problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation) as explicated by Entman (1993, p.52/2003, p.5) acted as the ultimate guiding framework in detecting frames. To address the research questions presented in chapter one, Section 1.3, this study will use the first stages of grounded theory which are Open Coding and Axial Coding as an analytical tool. This particular methodology of identifying frames has been used and is recommended for inductive qualitative frame analysis (See van Gorp, 2010; Nickels, 2007; van Goorp, 2001; Archetti, 2008; Roggeband and Vliegenthart, 2007; Vliegenthart and Roggeband, 2007). The study will detect frames through Open and

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